Oral tradition and its expressions, including language as a vehicle of intangible cultural heritage
Social practices, rituals and festive events
Latvian Old Believers' Church of Pomorian Church (Знаменный распев) (2022)
Zamennij raspev (Russian language), Zamennoje peņije (Russian) – is translated both as a “sign” singing and a connotation with the word “Zamja” (“flag” – translk. from Russian). In this Screen Sign-in sign, the characters are often given the name after their visual similarity – 'flag' is one of them. “Krukovoje peņije” (“leg” or “hook” singing – tulk. from Russian) – a name based on the similarity of individual characters in hooks.
The singing of “signs” or “stems” is the sacred prayer singing, the roots of which are found in Byzantine, but after a certain period of development in the ancient Russian church, and after the split of the Russian Orthodox Church in the middle of the 17 th century, they enter Latvia and become a specific form of notation and singing. Latvian Pomorian Old Believers' songs are a separate, unique form of notation and singing.
These songs take place in the churchlava language, with certain signs being used for their trail. The note notes the sound, but the ancient sign system fixes intonation and attitudes. The sound (notes) refers to the early world, while the signs that have a sense of meaning include a prayer for the spiritual, emotional, logical and musical relationships of the singing. Each sign is the movement of a soul. The researchers and traditions of these songs are convinced that only such a possible “non-falsified and genuine Christian singing that is always prayer” is recorded with signs used exclusively for that purpose, as well as singing churches in the language spoken exclusively in the church, both in prayers and in the reading of the sacred articles. The tradition has two forms of inheritance which may be called “oral” and “theoretical” or “know-how”. The first can be sanctioned by memory and experience, or a healing theme, the other being “galavščiki” (Russian language), or registers capable of reading, understanding, singing, and ensuring their inheritance – these skills are currently the most endangered.
The Pomorian Old Believers are active throughout Latvia, while the main centre is the Grebenshchikov Old Believers' parish in Riga (Рижская Гребенщиковская старообрядческая община). It is one of the largest Old Believers' congregations outside Russia, but its prayer house is the largest church of Pomorian Old Believers in the world – the design of architect John Fridriha Bauman and Reinhold Georg Schmeling, who in the middle of the 19 th century, is a state-protected architectural and art monument that is able to fit around 5 000 churches. This is the spiritual and economically active centre of Pomorian Old Believers, where the spiritual school, publishing house, Community museum etc. are also active. The Grebenshchikov Old Believers' congregation is unique with the presence of the Pomorian Church's professional choir in six people, the one in the Baltics. It is directed by the leader of these singing theories and practical learning, the lecturer, the researcher, the author of several books, Yevgeny Grigoriev. Other centres with “know-how” are only in Daugavpils, Rēzekne, Jçkabpils, Vilnius, Malta. In general, most of the 72 congregations are located in Latgale (Daugavpils – 6, Augsdaugava municipality – 17, Rēzekne and Rezekne municipality – 18, Preilos and Preilu municipality – 10, Kraslava and Kraslava municipality – 7), slightly in Celia, separate parishions in Kurzeme. The territorial tradition applies most to Riga and Latgale.
The singing of signs is confessional - the most essential element is belonging to the Pomorian Old Believers' Friendship. Traditions adept that these songs are prayer, their place is in the church, the medieval music studies, or in certain spiritual events. The lithurgical traditions and lifestyles of Old Believers are based on early Christianity postulates and non-reformed service arrangements. The Community has an historic experience of persecution, which is still in a certain conclusion and is able to keep up with the source of his religious power - an essential and integral part of the singing of signs.
The Grebenshchikov congregation is unique with the fact that it operates in the United States (thus also in the European Union) the state choir of the Church of Pomora in 6 people. It is directed by the leader of these singing theories and practical learning, the lecturer, the researcher, the author of several books, Yevgeny Grigoriev.
Other centres with “know-how”, training in capable registers, are slightly: Daugavpils, Rezekne, Jackabpils, Vilnius, Malta.
The Pomorian Old Believers' Community is more than 300 years in Latvia and has been able to safeguard its values. The first Old Believers in the Duchy of Kurzeme and Latgale arrive in 1659. As early as 1660, construction of the first “ancient Christian” church was launched. In the countryside, the Old Believers lived in closed congregations, worked with farming, craftsmanship, etc. In the cities they worked in construction, engaged in trade. Although they represented religion in the Russian Empire, the love of God and work, the abstention of alcohol, etc., made the Community strong and provoked wealth. Following the inclusion of Vidzeme in the Russian Empire, the number of Old Believers in cities increased. The part was refugees found in illegal asylum, part of which was sold by traders with considerable capital. Their resources contributed to the development of the industry. At the beginning of the 19 th century, the Old Believers of Riga purchased the city of Grüzenberg in the city area, where they began to build their own centre (now Grebenshchikov's prayer house). At the beginning of the 19 th century, due to a favourable economic situation, the number of Old Believers grew rapidly: in 1816, Riga lived 2112; 1826-5424; 1830 – 7904 Old Believers. Historically, the favor and repression of power had changed, but the Old Believers' Community was and remained united and in relations with the outside world. The brutal repression against them was directed at the reign of Emperor Nicholas I - a drastically limited economic and civil rights, no recognition of marriages, inheritance rights, closed schools, incapacitated shelters etc. There was pressure to move into Orthodox or vienticībā (единоверие), it was forbidden to build new gods. To avoid closure, the former Riga Christ birthhouse parish was named in 1833 in the name of the donor Grebenshchikov. In 1859, the church tried to shut down, but the Old Believers managed to protect it. This centre has played an important role in maintaining the tradition of singing. Due to the liberalisation of the legislation, the situation improved, however, the discriminatory legal norms were completely annulled only by the Russian Emperor Nicholas II's manifesto in 1905 - former “Shelters” (раскольники) obtained the name “Old Believers” (старообрядцы). The amendments to the laws contributed to the economic, social and political activities of the Old Believers of Latvia, which were particularly active during the period of the Republic of Latvia - the Old Believers acquired a legal status equivalent to traditional confessions and received state grants. There is an active public life at the time, an intensified interest in culture and traditions - a group of Russian ancient fans (Кружок ревнителей русской старины, 1927 –1940, Riga, branches in Jelgava, Daugavpils, 1928 –1940, Rezekne, 1932 –1940) and the Old Believers' singing association (Певческое староверческое общество в Латвии, 1932 –1940, Riga). These and other centres also educated the singing registers, maintained and populated the oral tradition.
Importance in Community Life
The sacrifices are prayer – the basis of the Community's lithurgical life and the identity of that belief. They represent at least 1/3 of the service time. Don't singing unless there's one Cora. If there are two, the singing takes place after the canon. This means that the chorus is located in the clirox (on the right and left side of the altar) and performs all the singles that are intended for the day. Unique characteristic of these songs Rita is the structure of their dynamic texts. The singing connection depends on different periods of time: day, hour, year, moon, and solar cycles, resulting in a non-reproducible connection each day. Identical text coincidence is possible after 532 years.
There are 52 Sundays, 12 big festivals and 10 – average. To be a full church, the choir would have to sing 74-75 times a year. Daily Sunday service is approximately two hours long, with a chorus for at least 45 minutes. In big festivals, the rate of singing is much higher. In addition to the service, the authentic souls can only be heard at funeral. Most of the singing takes place after the oral tradition, only 10%–15% in each service is the singing of signs - directly by signs. Because of the lack of registers, oral inheritance is dominated – it is a singing “after experience”. In the chorus, one sings (a sign of signs), others are drifting. The basic texts are known from the head, but it does not apply TO those 10%–15%, which are canonically singing by signs. If no one can read them, this section remains and the tradition is endangered.
The proportion of the singing of the viscosity is followed by the chorus of Riga Grenbenshchikov Old Believers. Unique feature: This is the only Old Believer god in the Baltics and the world where prayers are held every day. The singing of signs in the performance of a full Cora (preferably) takes place every Saturday and Sunday, as well as in all festivals.
Traditions emphasize that the only source of Christian melody may be the name of prayer itself.
“In a church culture, a separate (material) sound does not matter because it is without soul. The value and meaning are obtained only by the sound and intonation with which the word is played. This melody - the word intonation - exists in a whole, cannot be separated from the word, cannot be split into components. So church singing consists of ripe melodies – formulas. Each of these corresponds to a specific idea, a Christian principle, a specific prayer spirit, and is therefore indivisible. In our church, such a formula is called“ popevka ”(a healing theme)“, the Registrar of the Old Believers of Grebenshchikov, and the authority of the signs of singing Yevgenius Grigoriev. He also believes that these songs can not be called music in the most ancient manner because the music binds to the long-term, non-spiritual dimension. He also refers to the linguistic difference, the church's singing only “singing”, but the early music “play” (igraust). He also points to the fact that no musical instruments have been used in this church tradition, as they are “unable to pray, and God, as the most complete instrument, has created a human voice”. In Old Believers' singing, it is only in unison, and there is no improvisation in nature. “Church singers never sing“ from themselves ”, but try to sing similar to what has survived through centuries. Follow-up, unanimity and repetition: the true spirit of church singing.
The main task of these songs is not to entertain or cheer the people, but to save and heal a human soul, to help them connect with God.
The singing of signs is an integral part of the service. In order to sing, it is necessary to know the language of the churches. It is regarded as a precondition, as prayer can only be done in a language where a person does not sin – non-domestic, angry, envious, unspoken, etc.
The nowadays of the singing of signs is not current, the ancient song books are still being used, both hand-written and polygraphically printed. The Millennium Mia is computerised. Several Pomorian Old Believers' singing records have been invented and implemented directly in Riga – to preserve and maintain interest. Unfortunately, the publishers themselves conclude that the need for this product is dramatically negligible. Non-many registers can be easily copied, but the saved song book is more than necessary.
Beliefs, Rituals, Unwritten Rules
Cora's singers are Pomorian Old Believers, a mandatory condition. Gender and age are not limited. They are respectable people who can cope with their sinful nature – not smoking, drinking alcohol, etc. The service is properly dressed. Women – in long skirt and black handkerchief (who cover their hands) – on a day-to-day, bright-patterned festival. Handkerchiefs with bearings are only married. The black colour shows that “the Church of Pomora is like a widow in grief and it is sad because the clergy has been subtracted after the separation.”
Men in shirts worn over their trousers and surrounded by a belt. The belt symbolizes the nature of the people of the United Nations (under the belt) and of the spiritual (above-belt). For this reason, the hands are held crossed over the belt (not to touch the sinking part). The stricter rules prescribe that if the hands are dropped below, they must be washed immediately. When she crosses her hands, she is always on the surface, because her belief is to sit with God at her right hand. Across the crack, the singers wear an extended black coat.
The altar part of the gods – the solo – is raised. It is straight, there is a round bench, and there is often a special projection that symbolizes the stone on which the angels proclaimed the resurrection of Christ. “There can be anyone in the church, but only a few.” It is an angel-like status, "says Grigory Zamarajevs.
Inheritance and Transmission
The singing of signs after “napeva” (healing) or oral tradition is inherited in the family, the Community, Sunday school. It is a living or a tradition of the People's tradition, because these songs are being used in practice, but there must also be dotting and desire. This tradition is inherited over a long period of time and in every service. This is also in line with the early Christianity setting that all the most important knowledge is transferred from human beings to “living”. Such a principle excludes the freedom of mediators and the possibility of subjective interpretation. According to the Community, there might be 200-250 people who singing after “napeva”.
In order to learn theoretical or “know-how” knowledge, a teacher, as well as regular singing, should also spend a lot of time. There are currently 5-10-digit singing registers in the Community who have learned these knowledge both in the Community and in an in-depth and long-term review of their teacher. These people keep an oral tradition of inheritance in their friends and try to train a follower. The singing course of the signs is periodically read in the spiritual school of Grebenshchikov. Unfortunately, the interest, especially in the last years, is negligible – the acquisition of skills is too labour-intensive and special abilities are needed.
Theoretical literature and teaching aids are available in sufficient quantity (Russian).
The root of the tradition is in Byzantine culture, from which the Old Believers' Church has inherited two values: the writing of icons, which is a cultural historical heritage, and the singing of signs, which is an intangible cultural heritage. An eight Modu system, or “voices”, is inherited from Byzantine, which is the basis of all the songs. They came to Kiev in Russia even before its baptism in 988. The eight Modu principle also confirms the deep sense of the singing – in six days God created the land, in the seventh – recreation, the eighth is the symbolic future after the recession of Christ. The singing of signs is “the second philosophy”, beautiful in her unison. There is evidence that the beauty of the Greek singing “angel-like” was the crucial reason for Knife Vladimir to accept the eastern Christianity of Russia. In the following centuries, the singing of signs in Russia developed symbiotic with the Greeks who drove to teach the people of Russia. A number of signs of singing have developed in the “musical laboratories” of Russian monasteries, which reached the peak of masterity by the middle of the 17 th century. It was provided by professional prophecies, choir and generous court support, which ended with the separation of the prosperity of Russia after the reforms of 1666-1667. They predicted modernisation and abandonment of all ancient Byzantine elements, including the singing of signs, which was also damned and excluded from the reformed church. It was a multi-voiced singing, but the Old Believers went into exile, where the ancient tradition of singing was preserved. Pure, in the original way, they have been inherited by the Old Believers. Thanks to their tough confidence (the will of God), inheritance from generation to generation has remained. In the Millennium Mia, the Latvian Pomorian Old Believers' congregation proud that there are 20-25 registers in their lines, which fully manage the tradition of these important spiritual songs. In the 2014 concert, “20 throughout the Baltic States”. The uniqueness of these songs has been assessed at the time when records are collected and issued in Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. In the years of independence, educational materials have been issued in each of the countries, but CD entries and permanent choir with remunerated singers are only in Latvia. We are therefore responsible for maintaining traditions throughout the Baltic States and in the world where there is no threat to other Pomorian Old Believers.
The role and role of the consortia in the Community remain constant: it is a very important element of identity.
Today, the Latvian Old Believers Pomorian Church (Древлеправославная Поморская Церковь Латвии), its legal status is governed by the Law of Pomorian Church of Latvia (in force since 01.05.2008). About 55 000 people, combined in 72 autonomous communities, are recognised as belonging to this church. The Church of Pomora represents the direction of the unpriest, the activities of each of them are regulated by the Council and by the President of the Council of the Council. The congregation shall be elected by the spiritual leader, approved by the Concils, which shall be convened every five years. It is coordinated by the central Council of the Conciliation. Numerically, this is not the largest religious community in Latvia, but strongly regulated, strong and most serious preserve historical traditions in both canonic and lithurgical terms. In particular, the tendencies of the modernisation and liberalisation of the church have led to the preservation of the most authentic religious traditions and also the singing of signs. The historically largest number of adepts by nationality is Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, and Latvians married in their families. Today's phenomenon is the prevalence of individual ethnic Latvians to this belief, as an argument with its constant spiritual rules and the strongest grounds of faith. The problems of the Community are caused by dying fields which affect the number of believers, as well as the economic and demographic situation where “two baptists have twenty funerals”. However, a sharp decrease in the number of the Community is not seen, the Community is considered to be stable: through several periods of persecution, it has found a way to survive at all times.
As regards the singing of signs, the situation is ambiguous. The oral tradition exists, but the theoretically educated and trained leader is missing, the learning of the singing is required: 1) belonging to the girlfriend, 2) musical abilities (particularly developed hearing), 3) the possibility of acquiring skills and willingness to do so for several years, 4) material security to accumulate and pass on the knowledge.
The singing of signs is one of the essential elements of the lithurgical activity, as well as the possibility of maintaining a unique tradition. Its existence is necessary for the whole of the Community, both now and in the future, but the training of the “know-how” (registers) would also allow it to be preserved in the context of the world's intangible heritage.
The sanctuaries exist only in connection with the knowledge of the sacred articles that the oral tradition bears as the participants of the lithurgy, while the registers are more intensified – either in the spiritual school of Grebenshchikov or on their own and in other spiritual schools accepted by the church in Latvia and beyond.
Yevgeny Grigoriev – the author of the Grebenshchikov Old Believers' Corridor, the author of several textbooks and studies, the lecturer of the spiritual school, currently 56 years old, has been in church since the age of 16 and has never worked in time; experienced an awakening time elevation, which also covered the singing of signs and the increased interest in traditions, as well as an enthusiasm of the norm; an active “professional level” defender.
Aleksejs Ravinskis and Yevgenius Fedorivich (Riga) - Grigorjeva newspapers and Riga Choir songs, registers.
Andrejs Burdin – The Registrar of Rezekne and the priest, under the command of the choir, has one “full-time” apprentice.
Georgy Zamarajevs - Daugavpils News and Angeles (Jçkabpils municipality) threat pastor and prophet, active enthusiast and sign-singing manager with musical education, fire and perfect Latvian language usage.
Aleksejs Voronovs - Vilnius Registrar and a priest who maintains a live tradition.
Institutions and Organizations
Llatvy Old Believer Pomorian Church:
The Grebenshchikov congregation in Riga,
Daugavpils neighborhood congregation,
as well as others where the singing of signs is used and the opportunity to learn more deeper.
Strengthening the Tradition
There are congregations with a live oral tradition of inheritance.
In some girlfriends, the priest is also a prophet and, as far as possible, makes a tradition.
A paid six-man choir at Grebenshchikov's prayer in the house – the only professional in the Baltics.
Since independence, several books have been issued – teaching materials. A lecture cycle is prepared – theory and practical learning of the singing of signs.
Daugavpils was the sole Choice of Pomorian Old Believers in Baltics UNISON, who has recorded a CD and in 2014 gave a highly rated concert to Joseph wiltola at the Latvian Music Academy. Unfortunately, in 2021, Cora and all the Community leaders Alexsy Žilko had died, so the choir had stopped working.
The tradition of the singing of signs ensures the identity and existence of the Community.
The singing of signs is still part of the main values of the Community, but the lack of knowledge of knowledge raises concerns about the subsequent transfer of the complex heritage.
A few energetic singing enthusiasts that create a proficiency circle around themselves are delighted.
Funding as a target grant or donation is not received directly from local governments or state institutions, but the church generally receives different aid. It depends on specific municipalities and needs. Most often these are repair works for the maintenance of the gods. The Community is an active organiser of scientific and research activities, carries out an active conference and publishing activity which has also had State or municipal support at various times. Otherwise, the church itself maintains and resides from donations and income from rental of property etc.
From the joint financing, the congregation itself seeks to maintain a tradition of prophecy, choir and sign singing. The possibilities depend on the means of the parish that vary sharply in Riga and the small gods.
The financial support for the maintenance of the tradition of the singing of signs is a supplement to the prietors who are the registers and the Grebenščikova of the Grebenshchikov Old Believers' parish Cora. All payments are made by the church from internal funds.
In the future, individual projects related to this tradition consider the possibility of requesting State aid IN THE CKF, the integration fund or other specialised funds.
The care of the future of the tradition will be taken by the Grebenshchikov's spiritual school – the Old Believers' training institution in Riga. It will involve and employ a specialist who will monitor the maintenance and development of the tradition. This specialist will perform the following tasks:
1. The meetings of the Registers will be organised and the current situation in the Community will be established.
2. Co-ordinate the performance of the best choir songs.
3. They will record interviews with the registers, decrypt them and take care of their publication in Latvian.
4. The learning features and the best descriptions will be translated into Latvian.
5. And will help create an exhibition section dedicated to the singing of signs in the Old Believers' Museum of Grebenshchikov's prayer in the house by organising a public event for a professional audience.
6. Promote or create publications on the singing of signs in the press and other media.
The Pomorian Old Believers' parish and the Grebenshchikov spiritual school will coordinate measures to protect the element.
1. The emphasis will be on Sunday schools and youth by selecting the most capable.
2. Work will be carried out to provide scholarships to apprenticeships throughout Latvia.
3. In the context of a mental school, the lectures of traditions will be organised and promoted.
4. Ideally, if you want to, you will create a separate character singing course in a spiritual school curriculum.
5. The most important task is the preservation of the Grebenshchikov Old Believers' Church.
6. Preparation of materials for remote learning.
1. Raise the prestige of the theoretical knowledge of the singing of signs, transfer skills.
2. At least five new registers will be prepared within five years.
3. Preserve the tradition in high-value form without losing the unique knowledge of previous centuries and their practical application.
4. To disclose this part of the less known intangible cultural heritage to the general public.
5. Positioning Latvia as a tolerant country that respects the diverse intangible cultural heritage of the various peoples living in their territory.
6. Celebrate the inheritance of the Old Believers preserved at international level: 1) the quantity of Latgale gods, which is unique at global level; 2) the tradition of the singing of signs in which we are the strongest in the Baltics and the world.
Threats to the Tradition
At the pioneering level, the main threat is the reduction in the number of existing scientists and their apprentices.
At the level of the people's or oral tradition, there is a slight decrease in the number of corps, but if there is no knowledge of the Regent, then the singing is only after “napeva” and the skill of singing by signs is lost. The tradition simplifies, stops.
The economic situation affects the time limit that people can devote to the church and its rituals, including the use of singing. For young people and people in the years of power, the priority is the provision of livelihoods and prosperity, which leaves the church more accessible to elderly people.
The political situation affects the activities of the Community, leading to caution. The survivors of the centuries have taught the Old Believers not to stand out, to ignore their attention, to keep up.
“Men's little, limp spiritual education”.
The Pomorian Church of Latvia's Old Believers.
Documentary film “on Forey's Old Believers”, 2018 - The “BREATH” of the magazine parish association is a film about the history of this parish's old faith, the gods, the traditions. Written and recorded documentary stories, memorial events, skaidroti rituals, reveal the rich cultural heritage of Old Believers, including accentuated sign-singing traditions. One of the characters in the film is Georgios Zamarajevs – the spiritual leader and the prophet.