Social practices, rituals and festive events
Performance of the Office of the Dead (saļmi) in the Vabole and Līksna parishes(2017)
Salmas (beetle), sailor (Līksna).
The most often dead ophilus is simply called salmas/Sablole.
Sometimes, when it is to be distinguished from the so-called “mozajom stram”, seven grand psalms, which are also a singer repertoire, are accompanied by the adjective “Lelos”.
The parish of vaboles and the parish of Līksna (in the 20 th and 30 th centuries of the 20 th century, they were the parish of Līksna).
In the narrow sense, the element “belongs to“ small so-called musical practice Communities ”— Līksna psalm singers and beetle psalm singers.
They are open to the Community within the meaning that, by applying the practice in question, the composition of the deceased, the composition of the singers differs from time to time in terms of numbers and persons involved. Moreover, there is also a possibility of spontaneous accession. In both parishes, they are approximately ten people in the Community.
In the case of vaboles parish, this Community coincides with the ethnographic ensemble “Vabalis”. In a broad sense, the element refers to those parish people in general. The performance of the dead ofīcija is requested almost always when one of these parish residents is dead.
Importance in Community Life
The death of the dead is an integral part of the funeral of the beetle and the funeral of Līksna parish. In 2016, 26 dead were placed in the parish parish. For 16 of them, the dead optimism was executed.
It should be noted that 17 people died in the parish. Thus, the number of performances of the dead of the dead almost coincides with the number of dead dead.
Also in the Līksna parish in 2016, the dead ophilia was held out of 15 dead. As seen, the deaths associated with deaths in Līksna and the beetle parish have a stable place and an important role: the songs are invited to the dead of the great part.
Looking back at the past, it can be said quite securely that for most of the beetles and the graves of Līksna parish, the prayer of the dead of the dead has been held. As a result of deaths, it is a non-written law of parish life, which is strongly held by today.
Activities and Functions
The existence of the practice is based on both the singer and the rest of the deep-rooted knowledge that the dead souls need prayer, thereby relieving their suffering in the cleaner: 'the dead must be asked. “The dead optimism is a traditional, effective form of prayer — a tool for facilitating the suffering of the dead souls.
The dead optimism is executed in Latgalian language and exists as a semi-orally inherited, folklorized phenomenon, which is performed mainly at home and usually without a priest's participation, like the peoples song, without any external organisation. For two centuries and today, the deceased optimism keeps its very important place in this repertoire.
Beliefs, rituals, unwritten rules
With the death of the dead, there is a belief that the death of the dead in the dream means that he calls for himself to ask for himself, that is to say, to hold the deceased.
Inheritance and Transmission
The music of the dead opposites exists in an oral tradition: the range of melodies, their sequences, the singing skills are inherited directly – the singers engage in its performances and sing with them, gradually accumulating experience (there is no training form such as attempts, instructing, special exercise or similar).
The text of the dead ofīcija is given in the books. Its first form is a prayer book published in 1786, entitled “Nabożeństwo ku czci y chwale Boga w Trójcy Swiętey Jedynego” (prayer book for the God of God).
The Latgalian version of the deceased ofīcija published in this edition through republishments in many later Latvian prayers in books has reached today.
The dead ophilus is an hour of prayer. It was born around 800 s and was executed as an exequia (funeral liturgy) in the funeral day, as well as at the death of the dead.
In the monasteries, the 10 th and 11 th centuries introduced the habit of fulfilling the death of the dead as a daily prayer. Following the decision of the Tridth Concils, in 1568, the obligation to hold it was maintained, as well as on 2 November (on the day of all souls) and on the day of the funeral, in accordance with the choir.
The dead ophilia has three parts: hamperers, matutin and Laudes. Over the centuries, the deceased optimism is known as a prayer held by clergy in Latin. At the end of the 18 th century, it entered the traditional repertoire of Latgale (also Upper Land). It was introduced by Jesuit missionaries, who translated the text into latgalically, wrapped it in prayer books and taught people.
At the time when the masses came out and the prayer book “Nabożeństwo”, which included the deceased optician text (1786), Līksna was an important Catholic centre where the Jesuit missionaries were active. This makes it possible to assume that the introduction of deceased opticians' practices here could be dated by the end of the 18 th century. By accepting this date as a reference point, this means that the deceased optium in the territory of modern beetle and Līksna parish is approximately 230 years old.
In the 19 th century and the first half of the 20 th century, the singing skill of the dead of the dead was general – it was fairly uniformly covered by different generations, and the proportion of women-men was even more equitable (today, the deceased optimism is very pronounced in women's practices). The performance of the dead ofīcija could be provided by almost every household. There was no special invitation of the singer and no habit of thanking the singer with special prizes in cash or grain.
In the 19 th century and in the first half of the 20 th century, the deceased opponent had a much wider range of functional spectrum in modern Līksna and vaboles parish.
It was executed: on the occasion of the death, the so-called anniversary (when the year since the death of the man), in October/November, for all the families of the family, as well as on 2 November in the church before the Mass, holding it as the dying of the parish.
Today, the three last cases are no longer practised or are rare, but the attraction of certain deaths is still very strong, which does not alter the fact that there are serious threats.
Today, the skills are concentrated in small, mobile communities centred around a well-known personality. The performance of the dead ofs has become a service.
The deceased optium is an autonomous ritual, but today most often appears as an integral part of a broader process of poaching and funeral. In the past, it was also held on 2 November in the church before the Mass, making it an integral part of the Church of 2 November.
The Community kernel of the deaths of the deaths of the beetle parish is a member of the “Vabalis” ensemble:
1. Regina Vingre (b. 1938),
2. Anna Rubina (b. 1946),
3. Lydia Sparane (deletion) 1942),
4. Mairita Stalidze (b. 1974),
5. Irene Limane (b. 1943),
6. Iveta Skrinda (b. 1977),
7. Veronica Sticane (b. 1948).
However, the current composition also managed to identify several singers who also participated or could participate in the execution of the deceased.
1. Regina Zukovsky (b. 1940),
2. Lydia Orbidane (deletion) 1943),
3. Monika Deidule (deletion) 1924),
4. Leocadia Borowick (b. 1931).
Thus, at least 11 persons are associated with that practice in the parish of vaboles.
The work of the Līksna parish, in preparation of the application, took place with three singing songs:
1. Sophie Klaucani (deletion) 1926),
2. Agnes Brakowski (b. 1943),
3. Marie beans (deletion) 1969).
Several more singers were conscious:
1. Berta Vingre,
2. Agnes Samusa,
3. Stanislava Kevis,
4. Anna Vingre,
5. Veronica Rācene,
6. Eleanor Wales,
7. Olga Jakubowska,
8. Nina Red.
As a result, the Community of Līksna's deceased singing musical practice is approximately 11 persons.
Institutions and Organizations
Augšdaugavas novada Kultūras pārvalde,
Vaboles pagasta pārvalde,
Vaboles kultūras nams,
Skrindu dzimtas muzejs.
Strengthening the Tradition
Saļmu izpildīšanas praksi veic Vaboles pagasta kultūras nama etnogrāfiskais ansamblis „Vabaļis”. Augšdaugavas novada pašvaldība uztur un atbalsta ansambļa pastāvēšanu.
1. Research and documentation, 2018, Skrindu Museum, VKF target programme, eur 1500.
2. Establishment of the database, 2019, Museum of Skrindu, CKF target programme, eur 1500.
3. Entry of records, 2020, cultural administration, CKF programmes, €2000.
4. Aizlūgumu atjaunošana ģimenēs ik gadus par visiem to mirušajiem kopā; tradīcijas atjaunošana, mirušo ofīciju dzied baznīcā pirms mises 2. novembrī un kapusvētkos pirms mises. 2019–2022. g., Līksnas katoļu draudze. Kopienas resursi.
5. Publicitāte: nodrošināt prakses pastāvēšanas un lietojuma atspoguļojumu tīmeklī un presē. 2019.–2022. g. Kultūras pārvalde. Pašvaldības resursi.
6. Photo exhibition beetles and Līksna psalm singers. 2019-2020 Museum of the Skrindu family, VKF target programme, eur 1600.
7. “Psalmi” – CD release, 2022 Vaboles parish council, Etnographic ensemble “Vabalis”, 000 euros.
8. Prasmju darbnīcas, 2018–2022. g. Vaboles pagasta pārvalde. Kopienas un pašvaldības resursi.
9. Aid to Etnographic ensemble “Vabalis”, 2018-2022 Daugavpils municipality municipality. Municipal budget.
Saļmu izpildīšana ir process, kas saistīts ar cilvēka dzīves ciklu, katoļticīgie aicina saļmu dziedāšanas pratējus izpildīt to rituālos notikumos - bērēs, aizlūgumos par mirušajiem. Arī mūsdienās Mirušo ofīcijs ir neatņemama bēru norises sastāvdaļa apkārtnes pagastos.
Augšdaugavas novada pašvaldība no sava kultūras budžeta līdzekļiem uztur etnogrāfiskā ansambļa „Vabaļis” darbību, kas, savukārt, ir Mirušo ofīcija tradīcijas uzturētājs kopienā.
No valsts – mērķdotācija kolektīva vadītāja darba samaksai.
Skrindu dzimtas muzejs veiks lokālus pētījumus par Mirušo ofīcija tradīciju Vaboles, Kalupes un Līksnas pagastos, papildinās muzeja krājumu ar iegūtajiem dokumentiem. Tiks papildināta tradīcija nesēju datu bāze.
Vaboles Kultūras nams turpinās etnogrāfiskā ansambļa “Vabalis” darbību, tiks rīkoti pasākumi (Maija dziedājumi u.c.), plānoti ansambļa dalībnieču un rituālo notikumu dalībnieku tradicionālā apģērba izpēte un atjaunošana.
Lai arī Mirušo ofīcija mūzika pastāv mutiskā tradīcijā: melodiju klāsts, to secība, dziedāšanas iemaņas tiek pārmantotas nepastarpināti – dziedātājām iesaistoties tā izpildījumos un dziedot līdzi, pamazām uzkrājot pieredzi, jo nepastāv īpaši mēģinājumi, instruēšana, vingrināšanās. Tomēr oficija izpildītāju darbošanās etnogrāfiskajā ansamblī atvieglo tradīcijas nesēju komunikāciju, papildina viņu pieredzi, tāpēc arī turpmākajos piecos gados Mirušo ofīcija izpildīšanas prakse Vaboles un Līksnas pagastos tiks turpināta galvenokārt ar etnogrāfiskā ansambļa „Vabaļis” darbību, ko nodrošinās Augšdaugavas novada pašvaldība.
Saglabāt Mirušo ofīcija pastāvēšanu Vaboles un Līksnas pagastu kopienas dzīves tradīcijās.
Threats to the Tradition
The existence of the deceased apprenticeship practice is based on both the singer and the rest of the deep-rooted conviction that the dead souls need prayer that it can facilitate their suffering in a cleaner. This should be borne in mind when dealing with threats.
The threats of tradition exist in two interconnected respects.
1. The average age of both the Līksna and the beetle parish is 72.4 years, and the presence of young songs is, in fact, in terms of fate.
2. The death of the dead as a prerequisition for souls in the soluble is an alternative – a mass of the death of dead - that is, it is possible to do so by using only this one variant, and the attachment of the death of the dead of the dead is optional (for the time being, these options are connected).
If, for some reason, the death of the dead of the dead will become more difficult, it may be possible to give up.
Augšdaugavas novada Kultūras pārvalde, reģ. nr. LV90000295873
Boiko M. (2001) “deceased optium (officium defunctorum) and dreams folklore in South-East-Latvia”. Materials on culture in the context of modern Latvia. Riga: science: 69-105.
Boiko M. (2001) “Psalm singing tradition in Latgale.” Acta Latgalica. Zinectnical roksts, documents, trimmings. No. 11. Daugavpil: Latgola postage instituta publisher: 348-377.
Boiko M. (2005) “deceased optimism: the dynamics of tradition in the 20 th century.” Letonica. Journal of Humanitarian Sciences: literature, folklore, art, No. 13. Riga: LU literature, folklore and art institute: 79-93.