Aija Mallkalns, Edgars Mallkalns
Traditional craft skills
Earthquake of Zemgale-patterned brunches with towed device
The Jelgava weavers are called “beans” in daily communication, as the lifting of the hills by removing the relevant handles is reminiscent of cow's milking.
Zemgale, also Riga, Vidzeme and individual locations elsewhere in Latvia.
Two separate but interdependent Communities may be identified. The first Community is the textile fabric of the ethnographic fabric, and the other users of these fabrics, such as dance collectors, choirs, folklore sets and individual folk-holders. As regards the sticks with the towed device, these two Community narrows and combine the skill and desire to use exactly Zemgale's written brunches. This unifying guide also forms a sense of Community identity: the desire to represent Zemgale municipality.
At the time of preparation of the application, a survey of the enthusiastic enthusiasts and the People's applied art studies (hereinafter – TLMS) was carried out throughout Latvia, sending 111 direct invitations in e-mail, as well as placing invitations in facebook.com interest groups “I want my own countryside” and “virtual weaving studio”. 43 respondents filled out the questionnaire. In addition, 45 TLM leaders and participants were telephoned. The collected data indicate that currently more steels with towed device are Vidzeme (12 towed devices) and Zemgale (10 towed devices), Riga and Kurzeme by 4 devices, while one device was indicated in Latgale and Celia provinces. However, not all of these devices are used. The active users of towed devices who are still eating are 9 in Zemgale, 4 Vidzeme and 3 in Riga and Kurzeme. The towed device is available and is still used by 20 respondents, 16 of whom have trained other weavers and/or demonstrated stubs and weaving skills in training excursions.
Respondents who use stalls with towed devices have trained other weavers, organizing steppes, excursions:
1. “Camolite” OF the Aizpute Cultural House.
2. “Auce” OF the cultural centre OF the municipality of Auces.
3. Dawn feathers, Jelgava.
4. Yang Evelina, Jelgava.
5. Jaunpils Municipality is the home of the lietišķās art group “Pearl”/New Palace.
6. The National School of Sardinia, Madona municipality.
7. SIA “Austras articles”, Jelgava.
8. SIA “mailboxes”, eagles.
9. “Auseklītis”, Carnikava.
11. “Durbe,” Tukums.
12. “Rīga, Rīga.”
13. TLEM “rota”, Riga.
14. “Saiva”, Ogre.
15. “Saulcutters”, Krustpils.
16. Vecpiebalga fabric set (no longer used).
Other respondents using stalls with towed device:
17. Jelgava, Jelgava.
18. “Radoma”, Jelgava.
19. “Courts” of the People's Applied Art Collection of the Pastendes Culture House.
20. “Liepava”, Liepaja.
Another 12 respondents pointed out that they had stalls with a towed device, but for various reasons (such as the change of generations, these specific weaving skills were lost, there is a lack of experienced foster care) they are not used:
1. Baiba Bite, Jacob
2. “9Arodi”, Limbaži
3. Burtnieku municipality, Rencens parish cultural house, “Rencēni”
4. Ira Paegle, Lielvarde
5. “Bulduru fabric” studio of the artist house of the cultural centre of Jurmala
6. Krimulda, Krimulda People's House
7. “Friendship” of the Riga Cultural and People's Art Centre “rhythm”
8. Saldus cultural centre TLEM “Saldus”
9. Sigulda parish cultural house TLEM “vines”
10. TLEM “Bauska”
12. Vecpiebalga fabric set
Survey data show that the willingness to learn to teach and/or obtain the stalls with a towed device has been shown by 22 respondents. The main objective of acquiring these skills is the desire to earn complex articles and the fabric of Zemgale writing brunches.
Importance in Community Life
In modern crafts, the towed device has a crucial role in the earthquake of Zemgale. Therefore, the name of the element is also selected for it: “The earthquake of Zemgale-patterned brunches with the towed device.” Other types of complex and patterned fabrics such as blankets and tablecloths can also be woven with the towed device, but these works are more typical of other handicraft. In Zemgale, the emphasis is placed directly on the weaving of the characters.
The towed device is mounted on the lever or sticks. It consists of a hollow board and a two-section frame. There are so many holes on the middle line of the board as it is intended to be eaten. The more it is, the more sophisticated articles can be broken. The second most important difference is the length or “depth” of the rear part of the steels, which determines how much it will be able to insert in the respective stalls. There are stalls that have the opportunity to extend the rear part (more in the annex “work with towed device”).
Ancient weaving skills and traditions gradually lose their meaning. Today, the woven fabrics can also be woven in an industrial way, as well as the modern computerised stalls or Peter Wilumson's stalls, but these weaving forms are no longer fully added to the work of the hands (perhaps other than Wilumson's stalls). Therefore, if there is a desire to preserve the ancient weaving traditions and skills and the enographic fabric with the methods and techniques of the age of origin to be dated in the mid-19 th century, the use of steels with towed devices should be regarded as the most important and practical way of authorizing the authors of Zemgale written brunes.
The audēju Community, which also owns the SIA “Austras articles” of the project, other professional weavers, TLMS and other weavers (see more in the sections “Community-related Community” and “entity-related persons”) is essential to maintain the writing skills of the written fabric with the towed device as it is a special technique for the weaving of written and ethnographic fabrics.
If the skill and tradition of this weaving are not preserved, the weaving of the textiles typical of Zemgale will no longer be able to be used for the age and conditions of the origin of these fabrics and the specific weaving technique available for rural craftsmen during that period.
The relevance of this device is also evidenced by the results of the survey, where a quarter of respondents have expressed their willingness to absorb a towed device.
The Internet survey carried out during the development of this project has prompted LMS “Tina” from Tennia to help and provide advice on the installation of the towed device. The studio wants to get the towed device, install it and learn the woven fabrics.
The use of towed devices, the preservation and transfer of weaving skills shall be related to the ethnographic fabric fabrics which have stalls with the towed device and the skills necessary for their use, or at least have the intention of acquiring them. These are professional weavers - entrepreneurs, TLMS and members of the house, hobbies – private individuals and other weaving enthusiasts.
The greatest opportunities for the preservation and redeployment of weaving skills would be a TLEM and a job home for which managers or participants can train other participants in weaving. The survey shows that among 18 respondents who still use the towed device 15 were directly studying and study participants.
In addition to motivation, these skills need to be developed for professional weavers who want to tear and make ethnographic proofs, using the working techniques and methods that are appropriate to their origins. At the time of the preparation of this application, it was concluded that the seedlings with the towed device were also the work tool of professional jewels.
Activities and Functions
The towed device of the magenta in Madre's book is described as follows:
The “towed device” is used to avoid the large number of Pamins, weaving luxurious, tissue-typed, etc. The towed device replaces the story notes.
The towed device shall be installed in both the lever and the sticks. It consists of a frame and a board attached to it.
The frame is composed of 2 side trees and 3 transcripts. In all three transverse windows, 16-24 holes are drilled at a distance of 2.5-4 cm. In the lower Square, the holes are shaped with notches on the front and numbered.
A 16-24 hole is drilled at the top of the frame attached to the frame at a distance of 3-4 cm, to which the winds are attached to the front so that the twine of the nut trees is better slipped. “(Ilze madre“ weaving ”, Riga, source, 1993.)
A more detailed explanation of the work with the towed device and the experience of the “Australian characters” is attached in the text of the Annex to this application.
The most significant differences between the weaving lever/sticks and the stalls with the towed device are shown in the accompanying video material.
For more detailed description and technical drawings, see books: Ilze madre “weaving”, Riga, source, 1993 and Anna Antens “weaving”, Riga, first edition of Agricultural Administration 1931 and re-publication 2017.
Inheritance and Transmission
Previous studies have not revealed the types of inheritance of weaving skills that would have been typical of the users of the towed device. Therefore, it can be assumed that until the Soviet occupation of the weavers, like other amateurs, the weaving skills were transferred from generation to generation, in training at an experienced master, but since the beginning of the 20 th century it was also learned in craft schools. The principles of crafts, including weaving, inheritance and transfer of skills in Vidzeme in the 19 th century and at the beginning of the 20 th century are described in detail in the scenes in Alsupes's book “audēji in Vidzeme” (“science”, Riga, 1982).
In the years of Soviet occupation, the keeper and the common became a significant artist of craftsmen, which are still maintained by the maintenance of these traditions. As one of the greatest craftsmen of his time, the People's applied art masters, handmen, pedagogies, the author of books for a long period of Madri (1921-2002), who have been A member from 1958 to 2002, have been mentioned. The head of Elias Jelgava's history and art museum “atspool”. She wrote nine books about her work, including the book “weaving”, which describes the creation and preparation of the steels with the towed device.
On the results of the survey carried out, it is shown that the skill of the towed facility has been acquired by 10 respondents, self-training and the advice of experienced generators (including relatives) 12 foster parents, 6 different educational institutions and three former production combinations “art”.
The participants of the survey have mentioned the following educational institutions, which have learned the weaving skills: the Central School of Applied Art of Riga, the Liepāja applied art secondary school, the Rezekne Art School.
The author of this application, Aija Mallkalns, learned his weaving skills by studying LLU at the faculty of food technology, in the speciality of the household, but they were strengthened by Jelgava TLMS “Darddze” at the head of its leader Infloor Ozolniece, who is the head of that studio for 50 years. However, the weaving with the towed device was acquired by Aija Mālkalna in self-training, as well as in consultation with experienced masters.
By systematising the types of inheritance and transfer of these weaving skills, we can distribute the following opportunities for learning:
1. Participation in the People's Applied Art Studies.
2. Literature sources issued so far.
3. Training at experienced weavers.
In the 1880 s, the local estate-holders sought to introduce new more productive tools and techniques in order to be more profitable. In order to achieve the intended, the foster parents were sent to study abroad (Finland), or they invited the wealthy masters to provide “art-making courses” to Latvia. The trainers were taught with the levers distributed in Scandinavia, with which the various ornamental fabrics could be woven: the typed rabbits, the scraps, the rolls of rose, or the roycels, the cellulose fabric, etc. “Because the courses were conducted by specialists trained in Finland and Sweden, the people began to call these weavers a bag of bags, but all the fabrics made up in unfamiliar technique - for bags of bags.” (bag of bags 2019, 24).
The idea of storing written fabrics in the 19 th century comes from Europe, where more sophisticated articles are weaved on jakarda, damasta (Damascus) and so-called “Doby” stalls (English – Dobby Loom), while in Sweden and Finland they used a towed device (English – Draw Loom), which we identify as levers with a towed device. Just beginning in 1880 s, with the experience of the scandinavian weaving experience, the levers with the towed device were also taken over by the weavers of the territory of Latvia, which were widely used in the weaving of various written fabrics (blankets, brunches, floorboards, etc.).
The news of the 1880 s was rooted in several ethnograph studies.
For example, the Latvian Welfare Institute graduate Biruta Zunde (1925-1990), the 3 rd volume of “garment” of the Latvian People's Arts, and the author of the text, the choice of Zemgale brunch weaving without reference to a particular time explains the following: “the written and colourless fabrics are made mainly by amateurs. In older fabrics, the article is read with the help of scales, but in the 19 th century it is also known for the making of the written fabric of the towed towed device. '(zunde 1967, 15).
The ethnography Mirdza praise (1924-2001) expresses the assumption that in Zemgale, the early 19 th century had known brunchs with a read-read article (praise 1966, 49). In view of the fact that the scientist's assertion is based on the material of the monument board, the 1805-year-old sketch of the written brunch, which has been drawn from the lining of a fur embroidered in fur, is hard to judge on the accuracy of the date, but the fact that the 19 th century had taken the worn clothes to be embroidered in other clothes: children's clothes, embroidery in winter clothes, etc. is a fact.
The ethnography scene in Alsupe (1926-2015) is the 19 th century in Vidzeme. On side 2 and at the beginning of the 20 th century, it describes the types of woven fabrics of various bags woven up to 32 nights. The author emphasizes that most of these woven fabrics were woven in households, but the most complex fabrics in professional fabric centres (Alsupe 1982, 66, p. 94-97).
In the study “The development of clothing in Zemgale 19 th century”, ethnography Aija Janson has compiled the 19 th century-old woven fabric of the 19 th century, woven by the sample of Finnish weaving (Jansone 2016, 94-104).
In 2019, the Latvian Etnographic Museum of Freedom issued an edition of the facsimile of the book manuscript of the book of 1880 (storm), in which Aija Jansson's scientific comment “insight into the development of weaving in Latvia in the 18 th-20 th century” explains the prerequisites for the creation of Finnish “art weaving courses”, the content of the training and the result obtained, as well as the succession of the development of the development of the woodland in Latvia (Jansone 2019, pp. 7-51). The facsimile part of the book shows the acquisition of the 1880 s weaving theory, the methodology of the texture notes and the 153 rugged fabric samples.
As at the end of the 19 th century, nowadays the stubble with the towed device is mostly used by professional craftsmen, as well as separate weavers for their hobbies.
At the end of the 19 th century, in Zemgale and elsewhere in the territory of Latvia (Rucava, Kuldīga, etc.), the people of the nation became popular brunch fabrics, especially as part of the ethnic garment. If the first-written brunches were honored clothes drawn in family honors and special occasions, they are mostly used as self-acting collective, choir, dance collective, folklore-set gowns. There is also a large number of individual peoples who are not detectable. With the willingness of self-acting collectors to diversify their stage of stage clothes with different people's clothes, the area of the use of Zemgale-patterned fabric is spread practically throughout Latvia. It refers to the fabric of these fabrics and to the wearer.
As regards the use of towed devices in the weaving of written fabrics, its significance has not changed. At the time of the formation of Zemgale writings, it was based on professional field craftsmen, supplementing their stalls with the towed device. The users of the towed device are also the wealthy, the businessmen, THE attendees and other weavers. Today, there is an opportunity to use industrial and computerised stalls instead of towed devices, but if we want to obtain the fabric of the written brunches that, according to the article, the fabric structure and the weaving technique, correspond to the end of the 19 th century in domestic and artisanal workshops for woven fabrics, the stalls with the towed device are the only way to do so.
Nowadays, the various forms of Zemgale-patterned brunches have formed their own names as “pub in a pot”, “Palmyte”, “Martina”, “cool”, “stars”, “hearts”, “rose” and others.
We thank Aija Jansson for helping to prepare the history of the element.
1. Aija Krūmiņa, THE head of THE TLEM “rota” and the wealthy (Riga).
2. Aija Mālkalns, head of SIA “Austras articles” and foster mother (Jelgava).
3. Anita rauda-Žukovsky, SIA “Austras Articles” fabric (Jelgava).
4. Ant stream, fabric (Jelgava).
5. Dawn feathers, Jelgava
6. Daira Drozdova, the head of the Red School, and the wedding.
7. Ilze Gailane, the leader of the Been's People's House, and the wedding.
8. Ilze mailīte, member of the board of directors of SIA “mailboxes factory” and the wealthy (eagles).
9. Jana Evelina, a MEMBER of the “Darddze” (Jelgava).
10. Māris Maniņš, THE head of the “Rīga” AND the wealthy (Riga).
11. Welga Pavlovska, the head of the New Palace, and the nurse.
12. Vineta Schulz, the Tukums of Durbe.
13. Zane Ulmane, THE leader of “Auseklītis” and the wealthy (Carnikava).
Institutions and Organizations
At the time of preparation of the application, they were identified by the institutions and bodies who had experience in weaving with the towed device. They may be considered to be the entities and bodies associated with the element which may and wish to engage in the maintenance of the weaving skills with the towed device:
1. New Palace House
2. Nurse of the Sarkanian School
3. SIA “Austras articles”, Jelgava
4. SIA “mailboxes”, eagles
5. TLEM “Ben”
6. TLEM “Durbe”, Tukums
7. TLEM “Liepava”, Liepaja
8. TLEM “Compare”
9. TLEM “sunflower”, Krustpils
10. TLEM rota, Riga
Strengthening the Tradition
SIA “Austras articles” has a towed device with a towed device since 2018. The weaving skills on these stalls are acquired by self-learning by using the literature available so far, as well as by looking at the towed device in the activities of Jaunpils at the house and in consultation with the New Palace house manager Welgu Pavlovsk.
IN THE view OF XXVI's general Latvian song and XVI dance festivals, SIA “Austras Articles” won 3 rd place with Zemgale compatriot, whose white-patterned Summer Books were woven with a towed device.
In 2019 and 2020, the stalls and the towed device have been demonstrated in the event organised by the Latvian National Cultural Centre “meet your masters”, where visitors of the event had the opportunity to participate in both the preparation of the steppes for work and the learning of the weaving technique. Inspired by the event, one of the participants gave her own writing to Zemgale brunchs.
It is positive that THE involvement of individual craftsmen and entrepreneurs in the event “meet your masters” with weaving masters and training excursions, both in connection with the use of towed devices and the foundations of weaving. For example, 37 weaving activities were offered in 2020. The more people learn the foundations of weaving, the greater the opportunity for them to find interest in more sophisticated weaving techniques, including weaving with a towed device.
The programme “From wool to toast” has been included in the “Latvian School Finish” list since the 2014-2019 school year. Students are offered to try weaving skills, listen to exciting stories, and watch the shows with towed devices.
During these few years, the “Austras writes” with the towed device are written in more than 12 different articles (several samples are displayed in the photographs attached), the skills that allow the exact copy of the fabric and the articles to be recovered, both by the fabric sample and by the photograph or drawing.
More than 200 pupils from Jelgava and Dobele schools were attended during the first years of the “Latvian School Finish”.
The accumulated knowledge and experience gained will enable the preservation and redeployment of this tradition.
Within the framework of the “Zemgale Culture Programme 2021” organised by Zemgale Planning Region, the artisanal workshop and the countryside “Austras articles” launched on 5 May 2021 the implementation of the project “Inclusion of towed equipment in the National Intangible List of Intangible Cultural Heritage”.
The purpose of the project is to prepare a qualitative application to the Latvian National Cultural Centre for inclusion in the National Intangible List of Values of Intangible Cultural Heritage.
The submission and acceptance of this application will be a significant step in promoting the value of Zemgale intangible cultural values.
The programme is co-financed BY Latvian State Forests and the State Culture Capital Foundation.
In the research direction SIA “Austras articles” plans:
• The identification and exploration of samples of less popular fabrics in museum stock will result in technical drawings for draining and weaving of fabric articles.
• In international information sources, the possibilities for the development of towed devices will be searched.
In the following years, THE following activities are planned for the protection, development and promotion of the element IN SIA “Austras articles”:
The educational direction is planned:
• organize weaving masters and weaving training.
• continue to participate in events “meet your masters” and “Latvian school bag” where you can offer both stowage demonstrations and weaving opportunities.
The promotion direction is planned:
organising the exhibition of Zemgale written brunches, in collaboration with the institutions and persons involved in the preservation of the element.
Aija Janson has found in her research IN LNVM's inventories that 86 Zemgale writes (A.Jansone “the development of clothing in Zemgale in the 19 th century”, LNKC, 2016). Such a wealth of articles means that there is still room for considerable expansion and diversification of dance collectors, choirs, folklore sets and the klāstu of Zemgale-patterned brunches available to the other peoples of the countryside.
The purpose of weaving demonstrations and training is the promotion and transfer of weaving skills, the demonstration of ancient skills as well as the creation of citizens' awareness of the people-to-life process and the contribution of the artist's work.
The development of the weaving technique and the introduction of additional facilities will provide an opportunity for the weaving of new fabrics, thus promoting the work with the towed device.
Threats to the Tradition
There are threats to the preservation and further transfer of weaving skills with towed devices, which are also typical of other high-skilled craft industries.
The work of the artisans is still not adequately assessed, which is due to both the low purchasing power of the population and the uncertainty about the value, volume and actual cost of the work of the artist. Also, the amateurs themselves often assess their work inadequately. As a result, the new generation of craftsmen has an interest in preserving the traditions of hand-to-hand work, and a more pronounced trend towards reducing the cost of making people is the replacement of artisanal work and ancient techniques with mechanised production. However, as has been pointed out above, the authentic fabric of the fabric must also be used as much as possible for the relevant era of the era, which are still available to us, thus making it best for the weaving of the woven fabric of Zemgale-patterned brunches to be suitable for hand-held handles with a towed device.
The preservation of the tradition is also not supported by the existing principles of self-performing collective bargaining, where the lowest price is the main precondition and not the quality of the product and compliance with the ethnographic conditions.
If it is not possible to motivate the generations of young generations to learn the weaving with the towed device, a special skill of traditional hand-to-hand work will be gradually lost.
SIA “Austras articles”, registration No 43603071566
Madre, I., 1993. “Weaving”. Riga: source.
Antenna, A., 1931 and re-edition 2017 “weaving”. Riga: First edition of Agricultural Administration 1931.
Janson, A., 2016. The development of clothing in 19.gs. Riga: Latvian National Cultural Centre.
Janson, A., 2019. A bag of bags. Insight into the development of the earthquake in Latvia in the 18 th-20 th century. Riga: science.
Zunde, B., 1967. Clothes. Grām: Latvian People's Art. End OF XVIII - XIX g. 3 sow, red. M. Stepermanis. Riga: flame.
“District clothes.” Zemgale, Latvian Agricultural Chamber Edition 1938 In Jelgava, the Palace of Viestura.
Apine Hermane, A., 2020. Weaving machinery in Latvia ". Riga: Supply star ABC.
Alsupe, A., 1982. In Vidzeme in the late 19 th century and at the beginning of the 20 th century. Riga: science.
Fame, M., 1966. Latvian people's suits. Archaeology and ethnography, 7. Riga: science.