Social practices, rituals and festive events
Crumbs in Sturneen. Traditional psalm and funeral singing in the Stirniene.
Crumbs in Sturnina
“Sorry.” Sabledys. Sailors. The family.
Traditional psalm singing about dead or dead optimism, or exequia in the Stirniene, is called congestion due to the good sound of the language. It is the ancient tradition of the spiritual music of the Stirniene, and the traditions of the spiritual music of the people – the habit of the funeral and the death of the dead, praying for the soul of the deaths, the singing of psalms and the corresponding funeral songs. This tradition is closely rooted and the melodies adapted to traditional singing features. In the neighborhood, the tradition of ancient psalm singing is called family, salmon, sailor, sunlight, sunshine, pōtortolka, ptarial county.
The clubs belong to the Stirniene Friendship and the wider area around it.
Catholic faith is dominated in the neighborhood, with almost every family and family associated with congestion, rarely in which the dead optimism is not executed in funeral. The tradition of singing is like every Stirniene psalm singer and a resident, the Stirniene district and a friend in general, and every one who joins a ritual at some point.
Importance in Community Life
The tradition of sailor singing is a family, a family, a generation of unity. At the beginning of the 20 th century, the Catholic mystician Teresa Neumane has said that “the Latvian people are viable only because they pray for their dead.”
At the request of the family, the clubs are singing almost always when a resident of Stirniene is dead. There is also a continuation of the joint congregation psalm singing in the Deaf and during the glory of all the dead in the church and in the parish house, as far as possible, also in the home. There has been a reduction in the singing of individual homework organised at home.
A healing event in his own way – soothing in personal personal experiences when the family is lost, and offering general equalisation to the public as a whole – praying for the forgotten souls, war-fighting, repression victims, as well as the charitable, its successors, including all the dead.
“Who honors the past, it blends the future,” the people of the Stirniene neighbourhood stop at this ancient Roman insight.
Activities and Functions
The singing of psalms is a request for the rescuing of souls who have died in a cleaner after death, and these saved souls are then able to help the land of the earth. “Because you drink Vairo lyudzus about myrusiai, because you're going to be lobbied,” said the sailor leader Jokstu Gele. Perhaps this assertion among the psalm singers has become an expression of the People's saying (such text has also been written by M. Boiko in the field study interview.
The alliances are in Latgalian language and exist as a semi-orally inherited, folklorized phenomenon, which is performed mainly at home and is gathering as family members, its neighbours and relatives.
The table is covered with a white tablecloth, two blessed candles on the table, and a crucifix is placed between them, facing the door. In funeral cases, salt and bread are placed on the table at the crucifix. The ideal number of songs is twelve persons. After the singing of the sailors, there is a common mystery. In the back of the funeral, the young housekeepers are appointed after the singing of the sailors, the black handkerchief, and a white man.
Beliefs, rituals, unwritten rules
The stubs are an integral part of the funeral ritual and prayer for the dead.
Up to today, Stirniene's girlfriend sings:
1) funeral cases (before funeral and funeral after burial);
2) each year in the month of November for the dead of the family or family;
3) in the church all sacred day on 1 November after the service of the service;
4) on the day of commemoration of the dead in the church on 2 November prior to the service of the service;
5) in the parish house once in the month of souls and during the glory of all the servants of the Church of Stirniene, the nobles of the church and the charitable, forgotten souls;
6) in the People's House – once during the time of the Adventa and the gavēņa for all the dead and for their relatives;
7) in a nurse – at least twice a year;
8) after the election of the relatives – on the anniversary of the birth or death of the detainee;
9) in special situations where a depestrator has requested direct or symbolic assistance in a dream – e.g. bread, pies, clean shirt etc.;
10) in situations where there is an unexplained accident in the home, in the case of cows, the people are sick and life is stolen;
11) in cases where an unexplained phenomenon is observed at home, which is translated as a ghost.
A glass of water or a drink is usually placed on the table, so that the singers can relax. One house heard that it was just drowned in a man's funeral. The old singers said, “If the skaņ of the mind, they'll be listening to the funeral of Kaida.” There is a belief that it is watching where the candle is burned at the time of the singing, and one of them will die from the party. If the candles burn light, no spelling, no spelling, and no smoke, then the depestrator is easily eternity. If there is a small, uncrystallised child in the funeral house, then the baby must be dropped to the funeral so that no harm can be found.
After the singing of the sailors, there is a common mystery. He was usually divided into a mayor, but one of the singers said, “In the night, dreamy—a dead man, Soka,” “A Who's mad vyspyrma's so spotted clothes wolves, and then with a mozgow?” so the alcohol is not recommended and compatible with the ritual.
Inheritance and Transmission
The older generation of singers knew from their heads, nowadays using books, partial notes. The colours are based on common singing - melodies, performances, traditions-related rituals.
In the elementary school, the participants of the spiritual music ensemble (2000-2015) gradually learned the psalm singing in the interest of interest education and participating in the life of the Stirniene parish. In the summer of 2020, 27 stakeholders participated in the training of psalm singing - jointly singing, without learning of individual elements.
Another 20 th century. In the 90 s, sometimes they used “Pilneijga gromata lyugszone” on the guda Diwa's iksszan tryjadibas winiga, wyssu swatokas Jumprovas Maryas and Diva Swatu … “(waves, 1857). Also sang from the Aglyun star (waves, 1912),“ Goreigos ”(P. Apinka red., Rezekne, 1936),“ SABLEMYS ”(sak. A. Matveyan, Vilnius, 2000),“ Krysta ”(Rezekne, 2000, 2007), psalm records in handwriting books. Today, the brochure“ Sablmys ”(Stirniene, 2001),“ Stirniene-Riga ”(2020) is used as a basis for the singing of psalms.
The dead optimism, as an hour of prayer, comes from the medieval monastery tradition in the 9 th century, when the exequia were executed by pounding the dead, and the funeral day. Over the centuries, the deceased optimism is known as a prayer held by clergy in Latin.
In the second half of the 18 th century, along with the activities of the Jesuit missionaries, the exequia enters the traditional repertoire of Latgale Catholics – the psalm texts are translated into latgalically and taught people. The printed first psalm texts in Latgalically are in the prayer book “Nabożeństwo” (1786). (compiled according to Boiko, M. (2001, 348 –377) psalm singing tradition in Latgale. Acta Latgalica. No. 11. Daugavpils: Latgolian Student Institute Edition
In the 18 th century, the first god of the deer's congregation is a point of Jesuit missions. It is likely that the tradition of psalm singing in the Stirniene may have been introduced at the end of the 18 th century, and more than 200 years have been sanctioned in the Stirniene Friends. The book is “Pilneijga gromata lyugszone” on the guda Diwa's iksszan tryjadibas winiga, wyssu swatokas Jumprovas Maryas and Diva Swatu …, ”(waves, 1857).
Major Heads of Conduct:
Mōra Madjaul (Michrone, 1870 –1965) Tailor
Agate Zalans (Coce Agate, 1873 (76?) –1965) Mesters-Aizkalnīši
Peteris Peters (Lessel Peter, 19. gs.b.-20. v.) Beans of beans
Helen Gele (1902 –1995) Rubežveipi
Ludovik Leimane (Lude Donka, 1905-1980) Rubežveipi
Donated Stafeckis (Stapezoku Donote, 1910-2004) Steernine, Tyltagol
Mesters (Mesters Tekleite, 1920 –1981)
Paulina Leimane (Jared Pauleite, 1921-2001) Rubežveipi
Tel Kassaliete-Jared (1921-2001) Cassalis
Helen Jokste (Jokstu Gele, 1922-2009) Teilans
Kasparane (1924-2006) Grigi
Eleonora Vvere (1926-2006) Kassalis
Antoņina Vvere (1927-2009) Steernine, Tyltagol
Helen Mestere (Majkovskyneite, 1927-2004) Steernine, Mesters-Hills
Genoveff Prizhevoite (Prizhevot Gence, 1929-2014) Steernine, Tyltagol
Helen Vaivode (Bazneicas Gele, 1931 –2019) Stornine, Tyltagol
Leonty Pekstina (Pekstead Lone, 1933-2004) Brukku
Tekla Kassaliete (Kassalis Tekle, 1939 –2014) Stornine, Tyltagol
Anita Upeniece (Manor Anita, 1975-2018) Stornna Manor
The age grew faster, the oldest singers gradually exhausted the forces, the uncommon songs of the singing melodies from the memory, but the underlying tradition is observed, even though the time to execute it. However, the conductor, Grudou Yu, says, smiling, “Golvonais, my heart!”
Today, the psalms are singing mainly on the funeral of the funeral, sometimes in the night, in order to ensure the natural gas (Pekstead Lone). Until the 20 th century. In the 60-70 s, when there were more residents and also the singer, before the funeral they sang every night from the day of death to the day of burial.
In the 19 th century and the first half of the 20 th century, the singing skill of the sailors extensively covered the various generations and the singers of the two sexes (all in the home of the psalmu singing were all, the family could actually provide psalm singing). During the Soviet occupation, the men separated more, including children and young people, as a result of anti-religious propaganda and fear of repression, to some extent separated from traditions. In the aftermath of the war, the psalm singers and leaders were more women.
There have been incredible changes since the awakening period – men, children, young people are also singing. From 2000 to 2015, pupils sang in a spiritual musical ensemble, with adults each year participating in the joint psalm singing and also in separate funeral times. Many of them can sing together today, some of which have learned traditions, they manage to sing and can teach it to the next.
The clerks in Sturnin and the corresponding funeral songs were recorded from the top 20 th-century leaders. The tradition is continued by Stirniene's spiritual music Kora “Reversium” singers, more than 30 persons, 14 children of Kora. In the summer of 2020, two months on Sundays took place in psalm singing training.
Broņislava Vaška (Vašku Broņa, 1925) Stērnīne-Varakļōni - folk singer.
Antoņina Teilāne (Teilānu Ante, 1931) Teilāni - folk singer, excellent master of handicrafts.
Veronika Ozoliņa sen. (Ūzuleņu Vera, 1933) Stērnīne - folk singer, excellent master of handicrafts
Anna Kanča (Sporānu Anna, 1935), Jaungaiļi - folk singer.
Genovefa Putriča (Putriču Geņa, 1936) Putriči - folk singer, saļmi leader in several generations.
Jānis Stafeckis (Stapecku Jōņs, 1938) Shernine - folk singer, leader of the saļmi in several generations.
Jānis Erdmanis (Erdmaņu Jōņs, 1946) Stērnīne Manor - folk singer.
Jānis Gruduls (Gruduļu Jōņs, 1946) Teilāni- excellent choir conductor, teacher, Stirniene spiritual music choir “Reversium” conductor, saļmi singer and leader.
Ieva Zepa (Bazneicas Īva, 1976) Sternīne - the organist of The Church of the Stirniene (varganiste), pedagogy and cultural worker, saļmi singer and leader since childhood.
Jānis Zeps (Zepu Jōņs, 1991) Stērnīne - folk singer, a singer and leader of saļmi since childhood and in several generations.
Ilze Grēvele-Skaraine (Grēveļu Ilze, 1992) Indāni - professional musician and teacher, excellent ancient music interprete, saļmi singer since childhood and leader.
Gunta Greisle (Greišļu Gunta, 1999) Mesteri-Aizkalnīši - professional musician, vocalist, JVLMA student, saļmi singer since childhood and leader.
Institutions and Organizations
Stylus sv. Laurent Roman Catholic congregation and Stirniene Friends Society
Strengthening the Tradition
The psalm and funeral songs were collected, collected and decrypted by volunteering from 1992 to 2018 (Ieva Zepa, consultant Jānis Gruduls) from the old singer and psalm leaders of the Stirniene parish - Helen Greeles (Jokstu Geles), Antoņina Weveres, Genovefa Priazvoites (genius), Helen Vaivodes (Bazneicas Geles), Helen Mesteres (Majkovskaya), Texas Mesteres (Uzollen).
In the main school of the market, the spiritual musicians experienced psalm singing (2000-2015).
Issued a copy of the brochures “Sablemys” with saļmu texts and the melodies of the Stirniene Friends (2001).
Psalm and funeral singing are digitised (Bernadette Everse, 2019).
The nošu “Saļmes Sturnina” (2020) is issued, which includes traditional psalms and funeral singles of Latgale with melodies written in the Stirniene area, accompanied by a description of the tradition, an explanation of grandwords, a list of singers, a photograph and a double disc of the audio record. The dziedājumu is designed with bigger font letters to make it easier to read older people and people with special needs. The project was supported BY THE CKF with EUR 3500 co-financing.
In summer 2020, psalm singing training (27 persons) was carried out.
The tradition of psalm singing in funeral times and the Church of Stirniene continues.
In 2021, the VKKF project co-financing of 1800 EURO made a video record, processed photos and an application for the list of intangible cultural heritage.
By realizing projects related to the singing of sailors, as well as continuing traditions, psalm songs have been populated in society, mass media, Internet environment. In many families, both the Stirniene district and Latgale municipality, and outside Latgale region and outside Latvia, have travelled the stock of psalms and THE CD, which people sing with and pray, feel links to their people, their land, their roots. The Stirniene-specific and non-reproducible is preserved.
As an ancient, the fact of today's spiritual music is important for the Stirniene, with the tendency to preserve, develop and also innovate. They contribute to human being and individual manifestations. The cultural landscape of the market is not conceivable without the ancient and contemporary traditional music traditions, their development, development and interactions.
"According to the description (and it can be seen and heard in the accompanying video and audio recordings), for some years, the reference system has been recorded and thus, in one particular way, the melodies used in training activities and in different performance times. This means the end of the oral tradition of the death of the dead. Well, it's gone into a written bed. Its inheritance, learning is now mediated by published transcripts. There is a clear phrase, smart, well-apprenticeship, uniformity of performance. The symsulation, spontaneous asynchronous and intonative approximate are excluded. Also, toņveide and articulation are now reminiscent of self-actions in collective, cores.
In front of our eyes (and ear) there is a local Catholic repertoire Revival practice. It is a new phenomenon. In this case, it is, of course, a diverse link with the old, authentic form. There are still a few of its representatives among the participants. However, real music is now a different foundation and new techniques are used in many ways. It should be noted that the above developments are a natural process in modern times which should not be viewed as desirable/undesirable. They are simply, develop and continue. And their results are and will have their own place in a wide-ranging, rapid change in the contemporary music landscape. "(2021, Opinion of expert Prof. M. Boiko)
An old man in Stirniene's neighborhood once said, “Needigs byudam, a heaven.” This is why the people of Stirniene are working and looking forward to the future with unsavourable optimism.
VKF, Stirnienes sv. Laurent Roman Catholic parish and private financial support, Riga Metropolitan Catholic Catholic Recommendation.
The FOLKLORE AND CHRISTIANITY of Ieva Zeppa's promotional work devoted to Shernine. 20. –21. EXAMPLE of THE CENTURIES OF THE CENTURIES OF THE CENTURIES/PARISH. Field studies, interviews, storing memories, stories of lifestories, journal, audiovisual material will continue. The dissertation is intended to be completed by 2024.
It is planned to continue to sing the singing as at home, in a friendly manner; to address the public, to encourage and encourage the restoration of traditions and to join, as well as to attract the new generation as far as possible, to carry out training. The saļmu tradition continues as existing singers and leaders, its new change - JIRMV learners and JVLMA students from Stirniene Cora; the annual musical studio of children and young people “Stornna Dzinmess Dinas” (since 2001). The Registrar and the successor will be the Stirniene sv. Laurent Roman Catholic Church, promotion and publicity events will be formed by the Stirniene Friends Society.
The purpose of the “Saļmes Sturnina” book is to preserve and continue the tradition of psalm singing in the Stirniene and its neighbourhood, to maintain its sustainability, to publish quality educational and preserving material, to include lifelong learning, to transfer and promote the knowledge and skills of the intangible cultural heritage.
Training provides an opportunity to participate and learn songs under masters.
The main objective of the measures already taken is the long-term preservation of the tradition, the unification of the Community, the strengthening of the latgalian Catholic identity.
Threats to the Tradition
The threat of sunshine is generally globalisation and the general secularisation of society. In any place, the tradition is lacking when it is no longer a value and a need for life when the cultural heritage is lost if there is no longer a psalm manager and a desire to sing. On the side of the market, the threat is also a dramatic decline in the population and a change in the boundaries of the municipality, because, without belonging to Latgale culture, the preservation of Latgalian identity and cultural historical values is not encouraged.
Stirniene friends' association, reg. no. 40008296789
Boiko, M. (2005, 13-20 May, No. 18 (148): 4) Jesuit: mentality and heritage.// cultural forum
Boiko, M. (2019, 84-93) Jesuit field mission books and traditional music of Latgalians. Some notes, assumptions, and findings. National Library of Latvia, scientific articles 4/XXIV. Riga: National Library of Latvia
Boiko, M. (2005, No. 20 (160), 4) The historic and stylistic layers of the traditional music of Latgale. Catolic traditional music. Cultural Forum
Boiko, M. (2005, 79-98) deceased optimism: the dynamics of tradition in the 20 th century// Letonica. Journal of Humanitarian Sciences: literature, folklore, art, No. 13. Riga: LU literature, folklore and art institute
Boiko, M. (2004, No. 5 (25): 24-27) Death, autumn, dreams and dead offensive in Latgale.// Music sun
Boiko, M. (2001, 348 –377) psalm singing tradition in Latgale. Acta Latgalica. Zinectnical roksts, documents, trimmings. No. 11. Daugavpils: izdevnīceiba of Latgola Research Institute
Boiko, M. (2002, 115-125) meeting with dead dreams: typical and untyped narrative and their functional and cultural historical context. From: Louse, A. (red. 2002) Man. Life. Narration. Riga: Latvian anthropologist association, Latvian university literature, folklore and art institute
Brence, I. (1995) Catholic Church music in Latgale. Bachelor's work JVLMA. Riga
Big beard, A., Boiko, M. (2012) psalm singing in Latgale. Officium defunctorum. The Office ofthe Dead in Latgale. Riga: LU literature, folklore and art institute
Mester, L. (30.10.2020) The Society of Friends of Stirnies issued two valuable expenditures. A local newspaper.
Synthesis of urka, B. (2012) Catholic and Paganic traditions in Latgale music. Bachelor's work JVLMA. Riga
Zepa, I. (2020). Crumbs in Sturneen. Traditional psalm singing Krajums and double disc. Riga: Dark Holography
Beitane, A. (2014) Traditional Polyphony in the officium defunctorum in North-Eastern Latvia. Rusudan Tsurtsumia and Joseph Jordania (Eds). Treatment of the 6 th International Symposium on Traditional Polyphony. Tbilisi: International Research Center for Traditional Polyphony of Tbilisi Vano Sarajishvili State Conservatoire
Beitane, A. (2009). The vocal voices of late origin in Latvian traditional music (Multipart Singing of Recent Origin in Latvian Traditional Music). Riga: LULFMI.
Slišan, O. (2010). Fermentation of chiacrxinate or felled roots. Z/SJākupāni, GIRG
https://klasika.lsm.lv/lv/raksts/etno-vestis/ieva-zepa-pec-psalmu-dziedasanas-majas-iestajas-fizisks-miers.a141909/ - interview with Ieva Zepu on the singing tradition in Stirniene.
https://lr1.lsm.lv/lv/raksts/kolnasata/izguojs-dubultdiskys-salmes-sternine.a136511/ - interview with Ieva Zepu on the singing tradition in Stirniene.
https://hearthis.at/rml/rita-celiens-rml-s06e039b/ - interview with Ieva Zepu on the singing tradition in Stirniene.