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The tradition of crafting and playing the Ieviņš type diatonic harmonica (2017)
Ieviņš type diatonic harmonica is typical garmon (or diatonic harmonica) of parties and dancing in Vidzeme in the first half of the 20 th century.
To the Inventory of ICH

Author:

Oscar Patianko

Music/performing arts

Traditional craft skills

Title

The tradition of crafting and playing the Ieviņš type diatonic harmonica (2017)

Empire, Emperor, Introduction, Emperor, Ermoņics, Ermoņica; also harmonics, miracule, smoke, Introduced smoke (Smiltenes), duds, rings.

Play ieviņu, play ermowics, build ermovics, make (repair) ermoņics, shake (mood) ermoņics.

Geography

Vidzeme and Riga. In rare cases, certain instruments are also present outside the region.

There are several groups with connections to the Element. These include:
1. Passive traditions: people who do not identify themselves but are able to identify and evaluate the instrument. The most often these people have played in the Emperor as a child, or they have participated in events that have been musical with them.
2. Individuals who hold an instrument played by a relative and consider it an important family reliant; there are also individual individuals who play the instrument actively and have inherited the game's skills in a traditional way.
3. Persons who have entered the course of the last 10 years individually or in the courses organised by the association “Skaņumai” and form a Community which communicates and participates in the meetings between them.

Description of the element

Title

The tradition of crafting and playing the Ieviņš type diatonic harmonica (2017)

Empire, Emperor, Introduction, Emperor, Ermoņics, Ermoņica; also harmonics, miracule, smoke, Introduced smoke (Smiltenes), duds, rings.

Play ieviņu, play ermowics, build ermovics, make (repair) ermoņics, shake (mood) ermoņics.

Geography

Vidzeme and Riga. In rare cases, certain instruments are also present outside the region.

Community

There are several groups with connections to the Element. These include:
1. Passive traditions: people who do not identify themselves but are able to identify and evaluate the instrument. The most often these people have played in the Emperor as a child, or they have participated in events that have been musical with them.
2. Individuals who hold an instrument played by a relative and consider it an important family reliant; there are also individual individuals who play the instrument actively and have inherited the game's skills in a traditional way.
3. Persons who have entered the course of the last 10 years individually or in the courses organised by the association “Skaņumai” and form a Community which communicates and participates in the meetings between them.

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Importance in Community Life

In the first half of the 20 th century, Vidzeme is a type of ermoņics (or harmonics) that was a non-missing musical instrument at parties and dancers.
They have a particular place in the cultural traditions of the region, as there are practically no other types of instruments in the area, while the instruments of such construction are not found anywhere elsewhere.

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Activities/Functions

They have a very rich, plump sound, which is provided by an unusually large number of tongues or votes.
Each sound is made up of six voices that sound in octaves, with a slight shear forming a characteristic vibrating tone.
The instruments built by local masters have a whole archaic structure with flakes glued on wooden frames, as well as a special accompaniment mechanism that allows very simple playing of the cover in a broad mix of acords. The instrument has an unusually gorgeous appearance with coloured flower theme stickers, decorative register switches and large quantities of decorative metal decorations.
They were played in both personal and family life for joy, as well as musice—solo or with other chapel instruments (violets, mandolines, battles, bass) in dance music events, wedding, celebrations and other family honors, markets, talks and theatre shows.
In the second half of the 20 th century, as the cultural environment changed, they mostly became the musical tool of the house, as well as in the predecessors of rural chapels.

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Inheritance and Transmission

The game's game is not very complex, most of the traditions have learned it by themselves, watching another musical game and trying to play familiar melodies.
Nowadays, the biggest difficulty of the game is the non-linear sound arrangement – similar to other bisonoric film instruments – the entire diatonic sound can be played by changing the direction of the film movement.
The participants of the contemporary game are usually associated with folklore movement, they are based on folklore dance – dancing – melodies.
Today, the instrument is most often heard in concerts.

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History

The first ermoņics in Latvia was introduced in the 40 s of the 19 th century from Germany and Austria, and because of its unique qualities, it is an easy, sound, convenient, easy-to-wear and easy-to-use instrument – quickly became one of the most important dance musical instruments in the Latvian peasant and urban environment.
At the end of the 19 th century, various types of ermoņics were known in the territory of Latvia, among them also in Germany at the time the popular eagle-ermoņics – an instrument with many registers of registers and a rich tanning sound, which comes from a number of simultaneous tongues.
Just after the sample of these instruments, Vidzeme's masters began to make their own ermoņics, learning this skill from each other.
At the beginning of the 20 th century, the most successful and most popular ermo-nics manufacturer became August Emperor, which is likely to have also acquired the name “Emperor”. But he was not the only one – many other professional instruments were active in Riga and Vidzeme major cities.
At least 10 masters have been reported at this time. It has also been a common practice for musicians to make their own instruments.
The first half of the 20 th century was an indispensable instrument of dance music throughout Vidzeme. They played in both solo and ensemble, most often with one or two violets, battles and berries.
As a result of his colorful appearance and increased price, it was also a symbolic attestation of the player's wealth – as opposed to violets, which could also be purchased by the less wealthy sections of society.
In the second half of the 20 th century, a key acordeone began to take place in public events, but later guitars and synthesizers. The reasons for this were the change in the trend of popular music fashion, also the very negative attitude of the official culture, as well as the lack of tools.
However, the musicians who had learned and played the Emperor during their childhood continued to play privately and, in some cases, in semi-professional musical ensembles.

Nowadays, the role of a new cultural identity has been added.
They are used to symbolize the Latvian People's music in both films and pictures on the covers of books and musical disks, as well as events in the afish, although the instruments themselves do not play in them and the sound is not heard.
Sometimes they are also used to create an economic interior in private homes, pubs and public institutions.
Also, musicians who play Introducers often use them not as a basic instrument for musical preference, but as a unique demonstration of the unique tradition.

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Additional Information

The gambling of his type is related to the musicisation of life, the musicisation of chapels, the organisation of formal and informal dance evenings.
The tradition of play is closely linked to the repertoire of traditional dances and songs.
It is also important for the musician to know the traditions of the celebrations of the Community, and an important skill is the ability to use musicisation as a communication tool – to choose the material suitable for the situation and to be able to emotionally influence the audience with its performances.

The building of Ermnics is linked to the skills of carpentry and craftsmen, including the tradition of domestic production.
The masters who produced the instruments themselves participated in all stages of the preparation of the instrument, including the manufacture of votes (chassis).
There is news that the musicians often made and repaired the ermoņics for their own hands.

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Masters

The masters of the ermoņik games, who have a skill or idea of their inheritance in a traditional way.
1. Valdis Andersons (b. 1936, Tūja), head of the chapel “Ieviņa”,
2. Juris Golvers (b. 1946, Vainiži parish),
3. Juris Saukums (b. 1941, Mazsalaca),
4. Juris Dūmiņš (b. 1948, Palsmane),
5. Aivars Katajs-Paeglis (b. 1954, Alūksne).
Masters who have learned the repair of ermo-nics and deal with it.
Raitis Sondors,
Juris Golvers.

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Institutions and Organizations

The association “Skaņums”, prepared and updated THE SNA value application, provides educational and promotion measures.
The association “IMUS”, the repair and manufacture of instruments as well as the promotion measures
Association “Kekava Musicists”, provides promotion events

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Strengthening the Tradition

Complementary elements of the complementary element are directed in several directions:
Promotion of traditions, including through practical use of concert activities.
• The instrument is viewable and is displayed in the Exposure of the traditional instruments of the “Signum”.
• The theme of “live music” of the 2017 International People's music festival was an ermoņik game, focusing on local traditions, including There was an erratic game; several concerts and awareness lectures/demonstrations.
• The festival of 2018 festival Baltica and musicist concert shows the group “Introduction” and “Brička”.
2018, 2019 “saiets of ancient and rare musical instruments” in Liepupe parish with the participation of the Empire players.
• 2020 television stories ReTv and LTV “Latvian Heart Song”.
• “Listance” is organized by a concert concert at the Amatas District in Ruķelos.
in the 2020 video concert cycle “Pearl's pocket”, the film “Empire Ermoņika” was created with the performances of several players and groups https://www.muzikanti.lv/ievina-ermonica.
• 2021 l.l. publication “Lady Lady and three vivids” in the magazine.
changing organizers (V.Anderson, Kekava Musicist Society), up to 2021 in 3, 4, 5 They're going to play the match.
• episodes with the Posted game are included in national cinema films – “souls” (2018) and “land that sings” (2022).
• A number of music groups and individual gamblers play the Ieviņa ermoņiku game at various events – the People's music group Brička (more than 40 events, including abroad), the chapel “Ieshe” (around 10 events annually), Oscar Patianko, Ilona drunken-Talut.
Research and documentation. Tuning in a video concert cycle in a pearl pocket. “Bobbyn” is documented by several older generations and new players (Valdis Anderson, Juris Golvers, Oscars Patianko, League Brodock). The Kekava Musicist Society, 2021, interviewed his granddaughter Brigita Krastiņš, the stories of memories. O.patianko had documented Jura's grandmother's repertoire, as well as the news of other gamblers.
Training of the game. The training option is provided by the “Signage” traditional instrument game courses (4 leads), as well as the masters “Get in Scale” (2019-2021). 2018 published a self-textbook of the Empirical Games in Latvian and English, downloaded free of charge on the musikanti.lv.
The provision/manufacture of instruments. The repair of the instruments is carried out by Oscar Patianko and the association “IMUS”, Master Arnis Abel. “IMUS” has developed technological techniques for the full manufacture of all parts of the instrument. Up to 2022 new instruments have been built up to 2022, complete renovation of 6 instruments and 7 instruments repair and tuning. For the provision of training activities, the association “Skaņums” acquired 2 instruments.

Awareness of THE value OF THE SNA, the understanding of the society, the understanding of the instrument in Latvian musical traditions. The availability of quality instruments (but also the market prices of historical instruments) has increased. The number of active musical persons increases extremely slowly – 2-3 persons in the reporting period. Accordingly, the tradition is still considered to be particularly endangered.

Current activities have been implemented mainly in support OF THE CKF (music activities, games courses, documenting, other promotion measures), EU education programmes for Erasmus + (self-training book project), financing of the national cultural centre (education and music activities), local government support (support for the development of music events), contributions of private stakeholders (acquisition of instruments, training costs)

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Continuity/Development

All created resources for promotion of value will be maintained – web pages with informative, educational and artistic materials, Exposure of Skaņumājas instruments.
The opportunity for potential stakeholders to become acquainted with Latvia's Ermoņik game will be ensured for visitors of the festival Baltica 2022. The Music Society of Ķekava intends to issue the “Brička” sound record.
It is also intended to continue to organize the saietus of the Empire of the Empire, the possibilities of attracting relevant music groups and gamblers, informing the public and participants in other music and traditional cultural events. Valdis Anderson, an enthusiast of the Ermoņik game, intends to create a publicly available instrument, including The exhibition of the Empire, in collaboration with the Limbazi Museum. O.patianko will continue to document the repertoire of the gamblers.

Regular provision of educational opportunities, training courses in courses and masters will continue. The group is intended to be formed in “Skaņumai” courses in autumn 2022.
As one of the best skills of the game, include the traditional instrument in the game program of professional orientation in educational institutions.
The association “IMUS” intends to ensure the repair of instruments, to produce 2-4 new instruments per year, as well as to improve technological solutions to reduce costs.
The “Skaņums” association will monitor the dynamics of the use of the instrument game, the identification and documentation of modern gamblers, and the identification and collection of historical evidence, photographs, instruments etc.

The objectives of the measures are THE values OF THE SNA – the preservation, protection and promotion of the traditions of the production and playing of the Ieviņa type ermoņics. Ensure the availability of sufficient quality information, the representation of traditions in music and cultural events, the provision of inheritance through education, maintaining the number of experts required for stable maintenance and distribution, and the availability of instruments.

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Threats to the Tradition

The tradition of Ieviņa-type ermoņics is very endangered for a number of reasons.
1. Lack of instruments suitable for high-quality and modern-day co-operation.
Most of the historical instruments have been poorly preserved and are waiting for repair, which is currently only possible in Latvia – not all parts can be manufactured or purchased. There are already stakeholders who do not have the ability to obtain a sufficiently good-playing instrument. In addition, the sound of almost all of the historical instruments is different from those adopted today, so it is problematic to use it for musical purposes along with other instruments.
2. The production of new instruments is very expensive.
It contains a lot of elements that need to be made by hand, it is a very time-consuming process. Similarly, there are high costs for specially designed components that are irrational to make by hand (voices, metal crews, buttons, etc.).
Although there is currently a mastery with the necessary knowledge in Latvia, the production of a new instrument would require large financial investments (for comparison – the price of the related design Estonian instrument is up to 4000 euros).
The purchase of such an instrument can only be afforded by a rare musician. The support of understanding local governments, sponsors, mecenates is expected to be very important for further successful development.
3. Traditional instrument music has low public demand.
The traditional ieviņu repertoire (which, like other instruments, has developed into the interactions of their time music fashion trends and the technical possibilities of the instrument) is formed from the repertoire of the newest layer of folklore, songs (curiosity) and dance, and the first half of the first half of the century.
The demand for such music is not particularly large, while folklore ensembles and dancing clubs have created their dance music repertoire, which also includes many of the dances and melodies that have recently been created or from other crops, which are not easy to play due to the technical features of the instrument. The updating of the instrument game will be carried out along with the promotion of appropriate repertoire and co-musical forms.

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Applicant

Skaņumāja Society, reg. no. 40008106801

Gallery

F1.Ievinu spele sadzives muzicesana_ 20.gs.20-tie gadi. Riga_fotografs M. Briksa

Inherited game – musicisation of domestic life
Riga, 20 th century 20 th century. M. Brix photo

F2.Arnolds ŌöĆ_åbelite spele ievinas spele kazu rituala laika_ 20.gs. 70-80-tie gadi. Fotografija no Arna ŌöĆ_åbelites kolekcijas

Arnolds Abbelite plays during her wedding ritual
20 th-80 s of the 20 th century. A. Photo collection photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Juris slogan plays Introduction in his home
Jelgava, 2015, O. Patianko photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Aivars Taras plays Emperor at his home
Alūksne, 2016, O. Patianko photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Varis Auzins is learning to play in “Skawai” courses
Scripts, 2015, O. Patianko photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Valdis Anderson is played by the Emperor of the Emperor
Lower Kucker, 2015, O. Patianko photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Co-image of the other musical musicians
Karku ework, 2016. M. Reagent photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Juris Golveris plays with League Tisins in the play of the gamblers
Lower Kucker, 2015, O. Patianko photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Chapel in “Introduction”
Oedema, 2015, O. Patianko photo

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Oscar Patianko plays Inter concert
Mierkalns, 2017

F3.Janis Pukis demonstre ievinas_ Rucava_ 2010.04.30

Musician Janis Dragon demonstrates Introduction
Rucava, 2010, O. Patianko photo

Audio Materials

Karlis Graumanis performs the sound “foxing”
Ainaj, 1987, recorded by relatives. Regina Borton archive material

Karlis Graumanis executes the sound “moon shine behind the sauna”
Ainaj, 1987, recorded by relatives. Regina Borton archive material

Video Material

Valdis Anderson executes the sound “I walk along the coast of the sea”
Oedema, 2011. O. Patianko video

Aivars Katai-Paeglis performs the sound “when he is divorced from his father's home”
Scripts, 2015. O. Patianko video

Juris Dodmins performs the sound “another roses flow”
Mayor of Mayors, 2014. O. Patianko video

The solicitor executes the polka “mastar, drink”
Jelgava, 2015. O. Patianko video

Chapel “Introduction” executes the sound “return, return”
Oedema, 2015. O. Patianko video

Publications

Saint Kēvičs, b. Jāņi - Summer sunshine. Riga: science, 1994

Tihovska, I. Winter sunshine music. Kraj. A practical Christmas book. Riga: Centre for Culture and Intangible Heritage, 2009

Patianko, O. Introduction, Riga: Listance, 2014

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Websites

http://muzikanti.lv/lv/projekti/skanu-maja/ - information on project and video manuals in the construction and play of the Introduction Type Ermoņics

http://ermonikas.blogspot.com/ - Oscar Patianko's blog on Ermoņics in Latvia

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