Anda Beitane, Ruta Cibule
Oral tradition and its expressions, including language as a vehicle of intangible cultural heritage
Psalm singing in Northern Latgale (2017)
Puzzle (sachet) live-in Zealand golf
The tradition is spread mainly in North Latgale: the provinces of prizes, Baltinavas, ruguos and Vilaka. With more or less coating intensity and local version, the specificity is common throughout Latgale.
In each of the 19 municipalities of North Latgale, as well as in the cities of Awards and Vilnius, there are at least one group of singers who practise sailor singing in the 21 st century.
Importance in Community Life
In northern Latgale, the population of which is mostly owned by Catholic faith, along with the music practised by church rituals, there are no traditions of singing directly related to the activities of the church, which are also practised without the participation of priests. One of these is the prayer for the dead who have been living in an oral tradition for a period of a century and a half.
Approximately one and a half to two hours of prayer, performed mainly at home. The singing is from the church's prayer books, where only the text is published. The melody and the way of singing are inherited from generation to generation, and that is, of course, singing “from the head”.
The most experienced singers often fill in the text, despite the large volume, but the song books are still held in front of them, as the tradition requires it.
The beginning of this unique phenomenon in Latvia's ethnography can be seen as a psalm singing record in North Latgale, which was performed in 1995 by Anda Beitāne in the Squilbert parish, to be included in Latvian traditional music anthropology.
This was followed by a systematic documentary and research work, which was immediately followed by Martin Boiko. He uses the Latin name “officium defunctorum” to describe this tradition, describes it as prayer, usually held by clergy in Latin, and acknowledges that it is surprising that it is astonishing since the end of the 18 th century in the traditional repertoire of Eastern Latvians in their native language as a semi-orally inherited, folklorised phenomenon, like the peothong, without any external organisation (Boiko 2012: 14).
The psalm sands have a very important place in the traditional music repertoire of North Latgale. As Boiko writes, “It's something that belongs to the house.” Like death herself '(Boiko 2012: 14). That is why this tradition is, in many places, still alive today. It may have several contexts. One of them is the time before the funeral, while the dead is still at home, in a nearby room or a farm building. During this time, usually in the evenings, psalm singing is executed.
Another context is the so-called “anniversary”, that is, the day after the death of the relative, and the “memorial request” that will be held every year in families for all of them. Once a year, Saļmas is also in the church – on the day of all souls – 2 November, and in the graveyard, the grave festival. (Boiko 2012: 15-16).
Beliefs, Rituals, Unwritten Rules
In the house, the singing is usually held in the living room at a table covered with a white linen cloth. There are lit candles and crucifixes on the table, and the symbols of the blessing of the house – coarse bread and salt – are often placed alongside them.
The singing is started and directed by the main singer, or the singer, who joins the rest of the singer. There are two groups of singers and two predecessors in several cases.
In these times, the two groups are singing alternating. The number of singers tends to vary, but the most often one group of singers consists of five or six singers. The type of psalm singing can be described as very strong. The singers have repeatedly acknowledged that this requires a lot of power.
Inheritance and Transmission
The melody and the way of singing are inherited from generation to generation, and that is, of course, singing “from the head”. The most experienced singers often fill in the text, despite the large volume, but the song books are still held in front of them, as the tradition requires it.
The introduction and strengthening of the singing tradition of psailes in Latgale Martins Boiko is linked to the activities of Jesuit. On the beginning of its propagation, he dated a prayer book “Nabożeństwo ku czci y chwale Boga w Trójcy Swiętey Jedynego” [prayer book for the God of Three God] in 1771. It is a Jesuit book that published prayers, songs and beliefs in Latgalian language (Boiko 2012: 16).
Onton Slišāns – a significant cultural employee of North Latgale and a traditional cultural activist who, in 1971, in collaboration with Mikķeli Jermacane – the capucine father Jacob – performed the first singing of North Latgale psailes – about the singing of psalm in the river: “the most stable of the spiritual songs' singing traditions is the singing of sailors in the fungi, also in the graveyard. Although in the Soviet years, the second half of the 20 th century, the tradition of the singing of sailors began to stop, however, it has passed the time test and is now a crucial need for almost every of the families of the family to mention and celebrate the traditions of the celebration and honesty (…) in the middle of the 20 th century, in the middle of the 20 th century there was a set of conspicuous singers in each large village, but in the small villages they were formed by bringing together the sailor of a number of villages. (…) when most of the wives from the clusters of the singers went to eternity, the preservation of the singing tradition was taken over by the women of the ethnographic ensemble of the river, by attaching the singing times to the singing of the enamel of the enamel (Slišāns 2012: 48).
Today, in North Latgale, the singing of psalms is also practised in the People's House, libraries, museums and other premises reserved for this purpose.
The beginning of the 21 st century is also an essential part of the spiritual life of Latgale Catholics, which forms the fragile link between living and eternity.
Despite the rapid pace of the time, the northern Latgale exists and features excellent singer-singers who are able to execute the complex and also physical effort of the pooling psalms.
1. Anna Griestiņa, Balvi municipality, Bērzpils parish,
2. Aija Ikstena, Balvi municipality, Bērzpils parish,
3. Anna Bitaine, Balvi municipality, Bērzpils parish,
4. Marcijana Livzeniece, Balvi municipality, Bērzpils parish,
5. Genovefa Ločmele, Balvi municipality, Briežuciems parish,
6. Genovefa Zelča, Balvi municipality, Briežuciems parish,
7. Leontīna Šakina, Balvi municipality, Briežuciems parish,
8. Antonija Jermacāne, Balvi municipality, Vectilža parish,
9. Solveta Logina, Baltinava municipality, Baltinava,
10. Silvija Strupka, Balvi municipality, Bērzkalne parish,
11. Regīna Kuļša, Balvi municipality, Balvi parish,
12. Zita Zujāne, Balvi municipality, Balvi parish,
13. Maija Laicāne, Balvi municipality, Balvi parish,
14. Janīna Lapsa, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
15. Natālija Circene, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
16. Natālija Šakina, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
17. Anna Šakina, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
18. Stefānija Šakina, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
19. Anna Tutiņa, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
20. Jadviga Kovaļevska, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
21. Marija Griestiņa, Rugāji municipality, Rugāji parish,
22. Antoņina Grāvere, Rugāji municipality, Rugāji parish,
23. Helēna Krauča, Rugāji municipality, Lazdukalns parish,
24. Irēna Grigāne, Rugāji municipality, Rugāji parish,
25. Stefānija Masa, Rugāji municipality, Lazdukalns parish,
26. Marta Bogdane, Rugāji municipality, Lazdukalns parish,
27. Emīlija Bondare, Rugāji municipality, Rugāji parish,
28. Zane Puļča, Rugāji municipality, Rugāji parish,
29. Anna Sīle, Balvi municipality, Tilža parish,
30. Jūlija Zelča, Balvi municipality, Tilža parish,
31. Marija Bukša, Balvi municipality, Kubuli parish,
32. Maruta Ozola, Balvi municipality, Kubuli parish,
33. Tekla Kozlovska, Balvi municipality, Kubuli parish,
34. Anna Eisaka, Balvi municipality, Balvi,
35. Iveta Logina, Balvi municipality, Briežuciems parish,
36. Anastasia Slišāne, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
37. Marija Supe, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
38. Valentīna Keiša, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
39. Irmina Slišāne, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
40. Līvija Supe, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
41. Anna Keiša, Viļaka municipality, Šķilbēni parish,
42. Zenta Grižibovska, Balvi municipality, Kubuli parish,
43. Anita Zaremba, Viļaka municipality, Susāji parish,
44. Marina Logina, Viļaka municipality, Viļaka,
45. Valentīna Dortāne, Viļaka municipality, Viļaka,
46. Inita Sprukule, Viļaka municipality, Viļaka,
47. Anna Strupka, Viļaka municipality, Susāji parish,
48. Aldis Pušpurs, Viļaka municipality, Susāji parish,
49. Anna Šumska, Viļaka municipality, Kuprava parish,
50. Elizabeta Logina, Viļaka municipality, Vecumi parish,
51. Jevgenija Račāne, Viļaka municipality, Vecumi parish,
52. Leontīna Čigure, Viļaka municipality, Medņeva parish,
53. Silvija Babāne, Viļaka municipality, Medņeva parish,
54. Marijanna Kokoreviča, Viļaka municipality, Medņeva parish,
55. Helēna Locāne, Viļaka municipality, Medņeva parish,
56. Lucija Keiša, Baltinava municipality,
57. Helēna Slišāne, Baltinava municipality,
58. Aija Keiša, Baltinava municipality,
59. Anita Kaša, Baltinava municipality,
60. Marija Circene, Baltinava municipality,
61. Anele Vizule, Baltinava municipality,
62. Anna Mežale, Baltinava municipality,
63. Lūcija Kaša, Baltinava municipality,
64. Anna Daukste, Baltinava municipality,
65. Felicita Avišāne, Baltinava municipality,
66. Lucija Logina, Baltinava municipality.
Institutions and Organizations
There is no specific institution or institution associated with psalm singing. It is a deep personal, intimate experience and prayer. It still exists without any external organisation. In view of the decline in the population, including psalm singing masters and literacy, and conscious of the great importance of the tradition in the life of Latgalian, the psalms of the 21 st century are increasingly invited to sing in public places: People's houses, libraries, museums, separate municipalities in specially dedicated premises, parish houses and churches.
For example, the psalms are sanctioned in the House of Berzpils, the People's House, the Baltinava Cultural House, the Naudaskalna People's House, the Lazuneau People's House, the Kubulu Cultural House, the Mediev People's House, the Susja parish in the Valley of Versukalna, the Briezuciema parish in the People's House, the Briezuciema parish in the community of the People's House, the premises of Borisov's spiritual singing, and elsewhere.
In Squilbert's congregation, the singing of psalms is more common in the church. It takes place every Sunday in the month of November and also the singing of the special funeral psalms, as well as the memorial songs of the year after leaving, and more often moving to church in other times. It is burnt in winter and is comfortable for everyone.
The singing of singing would be difficult to exist in an institutionalised manner, due to its specifics.
However, aware of the uniqueness of this tradition, North Latgale public and cultural workers are not only watching it but trying to create suitable conditions and environment for their development.
Strengthening the Tradition
Although the world was taken over by a virus, much was done. In particular:
• Ruta cibule organized and presented lecture in Vectilža parish “Special North Latgale”, lectures “intangible cultural heritage: North Latgale experience” in Kuldīga and Balvi;
• Andas Beitanes and Ruth Cibule texts in the book “intangible cultural heritage in Latvia - National List”, on the province of psalm singing traditions in the provinces of prizes, Baltinava, Rugja and Vilaka (lpp 12-18), publisher of Latvia's National Cultural Centre, 2019;
• “intangible cultural heritage: North Latgale experience” in Kuldīga and Balvi.
• In collaboration with the North Latgale newspaper “Vadfire”, four articles were published, with e-magazine LaKuGa single article, with informative edition “Vilaka novada” two articles and one article with newspaper Latvijas newspapers (see information on articles in Annex 1).
• In 2018, the National Centre for Cultural Centre, Signe Pujāte, received the Latgalian cultural annual award “Boņuks”, the promotion of Latgalian culture in Latvia and the world – “Latgaliskaus vierteibu in the National Namaterialuos kulturys of the Namaterialuos kulturys”;
• thanks to the long-standing interest of ethnousicologists in the traditional values of North Latgale, Anda Beitāne's ambitious publication, which is intended for the European audience “Notes from Latvia” Multipart Music in the Field, is represented in the northern Latgale NKM.
• Psalm singing in the public environment – People's House (Medņevo, Baltinava, Kubulos, Borisov, Lazduleia, Krišyans), libraries, museums and other locations available to the public, such as the Rekovas Church, Vilaka Public Organisations Centre etc.
More and more people are introduced to psalm singing. The value is kept at global level, is recognised and evaluated. The involvement of young singers – change of generations – is observed.
Covid-19 influenced the dynamics of traditions, the dangerousness of assembly resulted in a fear of people meeting together, thus influencing the transformation of psalm execution sites, such as:
the women of the river did not gather at home, as it would be by tradition, but they had begun to sing psalms in Rekov's church.
• In the conversation of Kubul's wife, a certain time when the psalms are singing at their home.
• more frequent use of psalm records before funeral;
• Psalm singing sometimes occurs in graves that have not been previously observed.
The municipalities of the Balvi municipality are willing to participate in the provision of support for documentation and research. This is reflected in the transport provision for local crossings, accommodation and catering provision, the preparation of the information base necessary for the preparation of research. Positive communication and support are provided from local governments when it is necessary.
Despite the fact that there are different restrictions on assembly, people consider it necessary to sing psalms. There are people who never sang them, but when a neighbor dies, they always get involved and know the singers of their county. And these value carriers always support and never refuse.
Over the next 5 years:
1. The Museum of Awards, the Cultural Administration of Awards and the Intangible Cultural Heritage Centre “river” will continue and support research co-operation with researchers of the Latvian Music Academy, as well as initiate new co-operation with Latvian university literature, folklore and art institute Latvian folklore store.
2. The “River” Methodian of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Centre, Kate Slišāne, and the Director of the Prize Central Library, Ruta cibule, will explore how the Covid-19 weather has affected the dynamics of traditional developments. In particular:
2.1. Let us see how many traditions have gone through eternity as they continue to be active;
2.2. Let us make sure and summarise how often and in what formats inheritance activities have been restricted in the context of communication.
3. “River” of the Centre for Intangible Cultural Heritage in Kate Slišāne and the Director of the Prize Central Library, Ruta cibule, will perform elementary audits, identifying the already known value carriers, as well as studying or forming a new generation;
4. The museum of the prizes, the cultural administration of the prizes, the association of the youth folklore and the Intangible Cultural Heritage Centre “river” will continue to be filmed directly from the scene and will be transferred to the archives of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Centre “river”;
5. The municipalities, in cooperation with the prize and the leaders of the cultural institutions of the local government, will focus on the annual psalm singing on the dead, as well as continue to support the singing of psalms in the public environment – in the People's House, libraries, museums and other places available to the public.
1. The Museum of prizes will create a mechanism to protect all local versions because each local version is a unique value.
2. During these years we have concluded that, in the north latgale, in each village it is different, with local peculiarities, so our task is not to create or make one local version more pronounced than others, but try to preserve the richness of each local version by trying not to denounce it, so that the museum of the prizes, the cultural administration of the prizes, the association of the youth folklore and the “river” of the intangible cultural heritage will continue to perform the sunlight recordings rather than the scenes, as it is more accurately distinguished from the scene of the scene.
3. Do not impose imposing or conspicuous activities, but, in view of the processes, support requests from local government-side singing groups to address transport issues or infrastructure issues.
The purpose of these measures is to preserve it in order not to lose. Promote to attract new people. Study and document to avoid shallow. Do not interfere, but be adjacent to undistorted and undegraded.
Threats to the Tradition
1. Dramatic decline in population in rural areas, including North Latgale.
2. In view of the new dynamics of the singing, which is also linked to a certain extent by the decline in population, it is possible to endanger the local form and the version of the versions in favour of one of the singing variants.
Municipality of Balvu region, Reg. No. 90009115622
Boiko, Martin. (2001). “Psalm singing tradition in Latgale.” Kraj. Acta Latgalica. Zinectnical roksts, documents, trimmings. No. 11. Daugavpil: Latgola postage instituta publisher: 348-377.
Boiko, Martin. (2002). “Meeting with dead dreams: typical and untyped narrative and their functional and cultural historical context.” Kraj. Agita Louse (red.) A man. Life. Narration. Riga: Latvian anthropologist association, Latvian university literature, folklore and art institute: 115-125.
Boiko, Martin. (2004). “Death, autumn, dreams, and dead offensive in Latgale.” Music Sun, No. 5 (25): 24-27.
Boiko, Martin. (2005). “Deceased offensive: the dynamics of tradition in the 20 th century.” Kraj. Letonica. Journal of Humanitarian Sciences: literature, folklore, art, No. 13. Riga: LU literature, folklore and art institute: 79-93.
Boiko, Martin. (2005). “The historic and stylistic layers of the traditional music of Latgale.“ Catholic traditional music. ”Cultural Forum, 27 May – 3 June 2005, No. 20 (160): 4.
Boiko, Martin. (2006). “The traditional music and identity of Latgale.” Kraj. Letonica. Journal of Humanitarian Sciences: literature, folklore, art, No. 14. Riga: LU literature, folklore and art institute: 50-57.
Boiko, Martin. (2009). (co-autores Gita Lancer and Anda Beitane). Latvian traditional music antology. Anthology of Latvian Traditional Music. LU literature, folklore and art institute.
Boiko, Martin. (2010). “May singing at the cross and the dead offshore in Latgale and Upper Land.” Home page Kultura.lv (provided by the Ministry of Culture of Latvia) (Adr. http://www.kulturaskanons.lv/lv/1/4/143/).
Boiko, Martin. (2012). (co-author Aigars Lielbedis). Psalm singing in Latgale. Officium defunctorum. The Office of the Dead in Latgale. LU literature, folklore and art institute.
Cible, Ruth. Psalm singing in Brecsen's grave: [Anele Vizule, Baiba Supe, Cecine Kauppe, Valentine Keith, Irmine Slišāne, Lucia login]/Ruth cibule. - Digital photograph. - Balvi: [b.i.], 2013-1 photo.
Sprub, Maruta. Festive and good tradition: [on the singing of psalms in Susja parish]/Maruta Sprudzāne; the text is told by the head of the Vershukalna Museum, Aldis Puspus// Vadfire. - ISSN 1407-9844. - No. 98 (2012, p. 18. dec), p. 11.
Martin Boiko on Latgale sailor i nuzeimi. - online service. - Lakuga: Latgolys Student Centre, 2012.
Lochmele, Sandra. Mednevo ethnographic ensemble wives: [sings psalmus sv. At the Marie Magdalene Church, during the international folklore festival “Baltica 2012”: in the first row from the left - Marijanna Kokorevich, Antoņina pabirza, Nina Circene, Antonia paberza, Malvine Lochmele; in the second row from left - Eleanor's neighbour, Sylvia Babane, Natalia Smouska]/Sandra Ločmele. - Vilaka: [b.i.], 2012.
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=637 - provides an insight into the singing of psalms in Baltinava parish, as well as the most important traditions.
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=1055 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in the parish of Briezuciema, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=216 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in Berzpils parish, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=217 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in Kuprava civil parish, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=242 - provides an insight into the singing of psalms in Lazdukalna civil parish, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=1114 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in Mednevas civil parish, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=218 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in the parish of rugja, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=220 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in the parish of rugja, as well as the most important traditions in total
http://www.balvurcb.lv/kb/?View=entry&EntryID=219 - provides an insight into the singing of psalm in the parish of rugja, as well as the most important traditions in total